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NWCC Histo2 Mash 2

NWCC Histo 2 MASH 2 SPREADSHEET

QuestionAnswer
What symptoms would be caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia? Difficult urination; Retention of urine
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule:a) absorbs 85% of the water from the filtrate b) target of aldosterone c) highly acidophilic, has a dense microvillus border d) simple squamous epithelium a) proximal tubule b) distal tubule c) proximal tubule d) thin segment
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule: e) forms the interstitial concentration/osmotic gradient f) only site of glucose absorption from the ultrafiltrate g) contains the macula densa e) thin segment f) proximal tubule g) distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule: h) target of ADH, becomes permeable to water when stimulated by ADH i) forms the slit pores of the filtration barrier j) secretes K+ in response to aldosterone k) supports the glomerular capillary loop h) distal tubule and collecting duct i) podocytes j) distal tubule k) distal tubule
Where are the juxtaglomerular cells located? What is there function? Wall of Afferent Arteriole; secrete renin
The internal urethral sphincter is formed from ____________. Middle circular smooth muscle
The external urethral sphincter is formed by __________. skeletal muscle of the UG diaphragm
What is a characteristic of chronic renal failure? Uremia
Nephrotic syndrome associated with diabetes mellitus is due to an abnormality in the ______________________. glomerular basement membrane
Where is the internal urethral sphincter in males? Females? in the neck of the bladder behind the prostatic urethra; around the neck of the bladder and the entire urethra
What are the podocyte contributions to the renal filtration barrier? slit pores; slit pore membrane
Which cells of the kidney may function to support the glomerulus and maintain the glomerular basal lamina? mesengial cells
Renin is secreted by the _________ cells which are located in the wall of the ____________. juxtaglomerular cells; afferent arterioles
List the components of the renal filtration barrier beginning from inside the glomerulus: fenestrated endothelium without diaphragms; basal lamina at endothelium; basal lamina of podocytes; slit pores with slit membranes
What cytology of the proximal tubule cell suggests its function? microvilli for absorption and lateral basal infoldings
Consider a person with low levels of insulin: a) What happens to the sugar level in the blood? b) What happens to sugar level in the urine? c) If persistent, what can be dangerous about this condition? a) increases levels because insulin can’t break it down b) increases because the proximal tubule doesn’t get a chance to break it down c) dehydration and acidosis
What is the function of the macula densa? the sense the concentration of molecules in the filtrate
Other than phagocytosis, give one possible role of mesangium. maintenance of the glomerular basement membrane
Specialized area of the distal tubule which may be sensory. macula densa
Aldosterone stimulates the cells of the distal tubule to________________. absorb Na+ and secrete K+
What is true of the male urethra? the prostatic urethra is lined by transitional epithelium; the penile portion contains mucus glands in the lamina propria; the membranous portion passes through the urogenital diaphragm
What is true of the urinary bladder? it contains three poorly defined layers of smooth muscle; is lined by transitional epithelium; contains no glands in the lamina propria
Epithelium of the prostatic urethra is ________________. transitional epithelium
The conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I is stimulated by _____________ which is secreted by _________________. renin; juxtaglomerular cells
Name the hormones described below: a) increases blood levels of calcium b) secretion is stimulated by adrenocorticotrophic hormone c) increases movement of glucose into the hepatocyte d) required in infancy for normal brain development a) parathyroid hormone b) cortisol c) insulin d) T3 & T4
Name the hormones described below: e) causes the collecting duct to become permeable to water f) increases blood glucose by glycogenolysis g) secretion is stimulated by elevated blood K+ h) causes ciliogenesis in the oviduct epithelium e) ADH f) Glucagon, epinepherine and cortisol g) Aldosterone h) Estrogen
Name the hormones described below: i) stimulates the secretory phase of the endometrium j) causes growth of ductal epithelium in the mammary gland during a normal ovarian cycle k) stimulates milk synthesis in the lactating mammary gland i) Progesterone j) Estrogen k) Prolactin
Name the hormones described below: l) secreted by the interstitial stroma glands of the ovary m) stimulates glycogen formation in the vaginal epithelium n) inhibit the secretion of insulin and glucagons o) causes glucose to move into most cells l) Estrogen m) Estrogen n) Epinephrine and norepinephrine o) Insulin
Name the hormones described below: p) causes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose q) causes the formation of glucose from amino acids r) decreases blood K+ s) low levels in infancy will result in mental retardation p) Epinephrine and glucagon q) Cortisol r) Aldosterone s) T3 & T4
Name the hormones described below: t) secreted by the neurons of the hypothalamus u) responsible for development of the ovarian follicle v) secretion is stimulated primarily by ACTH w) responsible for ovulation t) ADH and somatostatin u) FSH v) T3 & T4 w) LH (surge)
Name the hormones described below: x) responsible for breast development at puberty y) high blood levels of this facilitate the conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine z) stimulates testosterone synthesis and secretion by the Leydig cells x) GH, estrogen and progesterone y) Cortisol z) LH
Name the hormones described below: aa) stimulates secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum in: 1. normal ovarian cycle 2. pregnancy aa) 1. LH 2. HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin)
bb) enzymes required for the conversion of thyroglobulin to active T3 & T4 bb) lysosomal enzymes
FSH in the male stimulates the secretion of _________________ by the ______________ cells. androgen binding protein; sertoli cells
What is the effect of progesterone on the mammary gland in a normal ovarian cycle? increases CT; causes edema (swelling)
Estrogen is synthesized and secreted by the cells of the ________________. corpus luteum
What effect does follicular estrogen have on the adenohypophysis? increases LH; decreases FSH
Describe the function of the epididymus? stores sperm; stimulates functional maturation
Name the accessory male productive organ described: a. secretes a product high in fructose and prostaglandins b. secretes acid phosphatase seminal vesicle b. prostate
What male reproductive organ secretes a product high in acid phosphatase and citric acid, fibrinolysin and many have amylase? prostate
What male reproductive organ has a duct that joins the ejactulatory duct and it secretes a lubricating mucus? bulbouretheral gland
What male reproductive organ secretes products which stimulate functional maturation of spermatozoa? epididymis
What male reproductive organ contains motile cilia? efferent duct
High local levels of testosterone are required for spermatogenesis. How is this accomplished? FSH causes sertoli cells to secrete androgen binding protein which binds testosterone secreted by leydig cells to produce high levels in the seminiferous tubule.
In spermatogenesis, cytokinesis is completed at the end of __________? spermatogenesis
Which male accessory gland secretes acid phosphotase and fibrinolysin? prostate
Spermatozoa reach functional maturity in the: epididymis
In penile erection, blood flows from the _________ artery into the _______? helicine artery; cavernous space
What cells comprise the lining of the prepubescent testis? sertoli cells; germinal cells
Give the two major requirements for spermatogenesis: high local levels of testosterone; intimate contact with sertoli cells
What is the most common disorder of the prostate gland? benign prostatic hyperplasia
In penile erection,______ stimulation causes constriction of _______ arteries and ______ stimulation causes dilation or relaxation. parasympathetic; helicine; lack of parasympathetic
What cells are in the adluminal compartment of the blood-testis barrier? primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatid & spermatozoa
What cells are not protected by the blood-testis barrier? spermatogonia
The ____cells secrete testosterone in response to _____. This is sequestered in the seminiferous tubule by_______, a molecule secreted by the sertoli cell in response to _______. leydig cells, LH, androgen binding protein, FSH
In spermatogenesis, the primary spermatocytes develop from the spermatogonia by process of? mitosis and differentiation
What male reproductive organs have ducts that join the ejaculatory duct? seminal vesicle; vas deferens
What male reproductive organs are lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia? epididymis
What male reproductive organ may form condensations? prostate
In addition to inhibition, the Sertoli cell secretes A.______ in response to B. ______ C. Why is this vital for normal spermatogenesis? A. androgen binding protein B. Follicle stimulating hormone C. The androgen binding protein binds to the testosterone sesecreted by Leydig cells and this binds increases the local levels of testosterone to facilitate spermatogenesis
Which accessory reproductive gland in the male secretes prostaglandins? Seminal vesicle
In which portion of the male reproductive system do sperm reach functional maturity? Epididymis
What is the first cell to become protected by the blood-testis barrier? Why is this important? A.primary spermatocyte B.If this cell was not protected the immune system would attach it (destroy it) and thus spermatogenesis could not proceed.
In penile erection, A. _____ stimulation causes both the relaxation of helicine artery smooth muscle and B. _____ , allowing blood to enter the cavernous spaces. A parasympathetic B constriction of the Arterio-Venous shunts
Smooth muscle of the accessory glands and excretory ducts of the male reproductive system is innervated by? parasympathetics
Name the male accessory gland which secretes: A. fructose, prostaglandins and UV fluorescent flavins B. acid phosphotase A. seminal vesicle -B. prostate
Which cells are protected by the blood-testis barrier? (includes 1st cell to become protected)? primary spermatocyte; secondary spermatocyte; spermatid; spermatozoa
Following are true of spermatogenesis. A.-includes a period of morphogenesis -includes a period of meosis -begins at puberty -does not result in functionally mature spermatozoa A- F (period of morphological changes) B- T C- T D- F (mature in epidiymus)
Following are true about the Leydig Cells. A-secretes testosterone B-contain abundant smooth ER C -are NOT located in the seminiferous tubules D -are a target of LH A- T B-T C-F (found in the interstices between adjacent seminiferous tubules.)
Following are true of sertoli cells. A-do NOT differentiate from precursors at puberty B-contain microtubules which may help move germ cells C-secrete androgen binding protein D-form the blood-testis barrier ...
Name the accessory male reproductive gland described A. may contain condensations of secretory material called corpora amylacea. B. secretes prostaglandins and fructose C. produces a mucus-like lubricant A prostate B seminiferous vesicles C bulbourethral gland
What possible functions are served by the blood-testis barrier? protection of spermatids, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatozoa, & maintenance of testosterone levels.
The sertoli cell secretes two products in response to FSH. Name these products and give their function androgen binding protein, binds to testosterone to produce high local levels in seminiferous tubules for spermatogenesis; Inhibin, provides negative feedback to turn off FSH
Helicine arteries in the penis relax in response to A _____ which allows blood to enter B _____ A parasympathetic stimulator B cavernous spaces
What forms the blood-testis barrier? occluding junctions between the sertoli cells
Which cells are protected? primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa
Which excretory ducts in the male reproductive tract have motile cilia? efferent ducts
In order to achieve high local levels of testosterone in the seminiferous tubule, the sertoli cells secrete A. _____ in response to B.______. Androgen binding protein; FSH
Smooth muscle of the vas deferens is innervated by? parasympathetic
Which accessory gland In the male reproductive system secretes: -A. a product high in prostaglandins and fructose? -B. lubricating mucus? seminal vesicle; bulbourethral gland
The A_______ arteries supply the erectile tissue of the penis and dilate in response to B. ______ stimulation helicine; parasympathetic
In penile erection, parasympathic stimulation causes the constriction of A ____ and relaxation of B______ A-?????? B helicine artery
In the testis, FSH causes the Sertoli cells to secrete adrogenbinding protein
Give the two requirements for spermatogenesis. high levels of testosterone; intimate contact with sertoli cells
Sperm are stored in, and become functionally mature in the? Epididymis
The primary spermatocyte develops from A _____ (cell) by the process of B______, A.Type B spermategenia B.mitosis and differentiation
In penile erection, the A______ artery relaxes (opens) in response to B. ______ stimulation. A Helicine B parasympathetic
Name the following: A. Location of motile cilia B. secretes a product high in prostoglandins and fructose C. secretes a mucus-like lubricant D. Psudostratified epithelium with stereocilia a. efferent duct b. seminal vesicle c. bulbourethral gland d. epididymis
Name the following: E. Secretes a product high in acid phosphotase F. Absorbes most of the fluid secreted by the seminiferous tubule e. prostate f. epididymis
The blood-testes barrier is formed by A______ B what cells are NOT protected. A sertoli cells and occluding jcts. B spermatogonia
Ovarian hair cells secrete__________? Androgen
What hormone stimulates the secretory phase of endometrium? Progesterone
Give the effects of estrogen on: a) Oviduct epithelium b) Vaginal epithelium c) Mammary gland a) ciliogenesis increase in secretion b) increase glycogen production c) motosis of ducts
Synthesis and secretion of milk is stimulated by? Prolactin
What hormone dependant benign tumor, formed of smooth muscle, is commonly found in the uterus? Leiomyoma
In the Ovarian follicle, FSH stimulates the ____________ cell to form estrogen from androgen. Granulosa
Consider the formation of estrogen role of: a) Lutenizing Hormone b) Follice Stimulating Hormone a) stimulates theca interna to make androgen from cholesterol. b) stimulates granulose to make estrogen from androgen.
What is the significance of glycogen in the vaginal epithelium? make the environment more acidic for the sperm; to be released into the lumen when cells are sloughed off.
The stroma of both the mammary glands and the endometrium become edematous in response to? Progesterone
Why do leiomyomas regress after menopause???????????? ...
Consider the ovarian follicles: a) What hormone stimulates the granulose cells in the follicular phase b) What do the granulosa cells do in response to this stimulation? a) Follicular Stimulating Hormone b) More estrogen from androgen.
In pregnancy, what hormone stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum? Lutenizing Hormone.
What stimulate the Lutenizing Hormone surge? Increaseed levels of estrogen for 36 hours.
Which portion of the endometrium is shed in menses? Functional layer
In menses, the ___________ layer of the endometrium is NOT soughed off? Basal.
Consider the post-pubescent female. Give the effects of: a) progesterone on the mammary gland b) estrogen on the adenohyphysis c) estrogen on the vaginal mucosa d) estrogen on the oviduct e) progesterone on the endometrium a) edema of the stroma, increase stroma b) Increase Lutenizing hormone, decrease FSH secretion, move fimbriae close to ovary c) increase glycogen, and sloughing off of epithelieum d) Ciliogenesis increase in secretion. e)??????
Consider the effects of estrogen: a) In the uterus it stimulates the _________phase of the endometrium b) IN the mammary glands causes_________. c) In the adenohypophysis it causes_______. a) Proliferation phase. b) increase mitosis of the tubular ducts. c) stimulates the LH and inhibits the FSH.
Vaginal glycogen comes from________ cells and is produced in response to_________. epithelial lining estrogen
The synthesis of the milk begins 1-2 days after delivery. Why? increase estrogen and progesterone levels inhibit prolactin.
What is the source of sexually stimulated vaginal lube? Transudate from vascular plexus deep in the epithelium in vagina.
At ovulation, what occurs to facilitate sperm migration through the cervix? mucous is more acidic and more hydrated.
Edema of the endometrial and mammary stromas is caused by_____________? Progesterone
In vaginal epithelium, the amount of glycogen and the rate of sloughing are dependant on estrogen (the more estrogen, the more glycogen and sloughing) When would glycogen levels likely be highest? Why is this significant? During ovulation Falls off faster with increased estrogen.
During the normal ovarian cycle, estrogen produces: a) the ____________phase in the endometrium. b) ciliogenesis in the __________. c) An increase in the secretion of ____________by adenohyphysis. a)Priliferation b) oviduct cells c)LH
The secondary oocyte is ovulated. How much DNA does it have? 2N
What is the structure of the primordial follicle? primary oocytes that have acquired a single layer of flat surrounding cells (granulosa). See diagram in mash!
The intestinal cells of the ovarian stroma secrete___________. What is the likely product? Estrogen; The development of secondary sex characteristics at puberty.
In the formation of estrogen in the ovary__________stimulates the____________cells to synthesize androgens form cholesterol/ LH, Theca Interna.
In menses, the ______________layer of the endometrium shoughs off when concentration of ____________falls below critical levels. Functional, Progesterone
The ovarian hair cells secrete__________________. androgen
How does the cervical mucous secreted at mid cycle differ from that secreted during the rest of the cycles? Increase volume, more hydrated.
From what tissue does the ovarian theca folliculi develop? Theca Interna.
What hormone event stimulates the menstrual phase of the endometrium? Decreased progesterone.
In the ovarian hair follicle, FSH stimulates the ____________ cells to make estrogen from androgens. granulosa
Which is true about the secretary phase of the endometrium? Uterine glands become highly coiled; Stroma becomes endematous; Spiral arteries become highly coiled
What is part of the secondary ovarian follicle? granulosa; theca interna; zona pellucida
Which is true of germinal centers? likely the site of plasma cell formation; have a lymphocytic cap where mitosis occurs; Contain macrophages; a site of antigen dependant proliferation and differentiation
Which sites have germinal centers? -- periarterial lymphatic sheath -- cortex of the lymph node lamina propria of the ileum
Which is true of the post-pubescent female mammary gland? lactiferous sinus is lined by two layers of cuboidal epithelium; estrogen stimulates proliferation of epithelial ducts; Progesterone stimulates growth of the stroma; Prolactin stimulates development of secretory ability.
Created by: brookert81