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Movement Disorders

Basal Nuclei review

QuestionAnswer
How does the basal ganglia influence descending motor pathways? Through complex feedback loops that project information to the motor cortex
Where does cortical input to the Basal Ganglia arise from? Prefrontal, motor cortex (M1,premotor area, supplementary motor area) and parietal cortex
Besides general motor functions, the basal ganglia also influences what functions? eye movements frontal executive / cognitive fxns (DLPFC) Limbic pathways (emotions/memory)
What are the players in the major loop that influences the motor cortex? cortex > striatum > pallidum > thalamus > cortex
What is the primary receptor region for input to the Basal Ganglia? putamen
What are the 2 main types of movement disorders in the Basal Ganglia? Hypokinetic Hyperkinetic
How are the hyperkinetic movement disorders further subdivided? jerky non-jerky
What is the difference between the globus pallidus interna and the thalamus? GPi - neurons are spontaneously active and inhibit the thalamus Thalamus - neurons are excitatory to the SMA of the cortex.
What is the net result of the direct pathway? excitation of SMA, increased motor activity
What is the net result of the indirect pathway? inhibition of SMA, decreased motor activity
What are the main components of the Basal Ganglia? Caudate Nucleus Putamen Globus Pallidus Substantia Nigra Subthalamic Nucleus
What are the basal ganglia components that comprise the striatum? Caudate Nucleus Putamen
What are the basal ganglia components that comprise the lentiform nucleus? Putamen Globus Pallidus
What is the anatomical relationship of the caudate nucleus to the internal capsule? Caudate is always medial
What is the anatomical relationship of the putamen and globus pallidus to the internal capsule? Putamen and globus pallidus are always lateral
What part of the substantia nigra is pigmented? the dorsal part, the Substantia Nigra pars compacta
What is the term for the ventral Substantia Nigra? Pars Reticulata
What is the nature of the input to the basal ganglia? excitatory, glutamatergic to striatum
What is the nature of the neurons of the putamen? inhibitory, gaba-ergic fibers
What is the nature of the neurons of the Globus Pallidus interna? inhibitory, gaba-ergic fibers
What is the state of the GPi at rest? inhibitory to the thalamus (via pallidothalamic gaba-ergic fibers)
Parkinson's disease is what type of movement disorder? hypokinetic
Classic features of parkinson's disease? bradykinesia resting tremor hypomimia freezing festinating gait cogwheel rigidity decrease arm swing postural instability
Huntington's disease is what type of movement disorder? hyperkinetic
Classic features of Huntington's disease? choreoathetosis slowed saccades fatal 20 yrs after sx appear autosomal dominant gene
Explain/diagram direct pathway? cortex and Sub nigra (D1) activates putamen, which inhibits GPi, which inhibits thalamus, which excites Cortex causing net excitation
Explain/diagram indirect pathway? cortex and Sub nigra inhibits (D2) striatum, which inhibits GPe, which inhibits Subthalamic nucleus which activates GPi, which inhibits thalamus, which excites Cortex causing net inhibition of movement
Created by: jasonsmithdc