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Embryo T2

Skeleton development from the notes

T-F Ribs develop from sclerotomes True
T-F Ribs develop from costal processes which grow out from the mature vertebral mass False-Grow out from primative vertebral mass
T-F Ribs develop intersegmentally True
T-F Only in the throacic and lower cervical regions do the costal processes become long bar ribs following the body wall False- Only in the thoracic
T-F Chondrification center develops at 6 weeks False- 7 weeks
T-F Joint plane forms b/t orginal union of costal process and vertebra True
T-F Bilateral ossification centers near angle of rib at 8-9 weeks of intrauterine life False- Single ossification center
T-F Proximal end of rib remians cartilagenous False- Distal end remains cart.
T-F In 15th yr. 2 secondary centers form in the tuberlce and one secondary center in the head True
T-F By the 24th year ossification is complete False- 25th year
Underdevelopment of a costal process forms what Rudimentary Rib
Overdevelopment of a costal process leading to an increased number of ribs supernumerary rib
clinically important because it may injure the brachial plexus or subclavian artery cervical rib
Splitting of the costal process forms what Forked or Bifid rib
T-F sternum does not develop from sclerotomes True
T-F A pair of sternal bands develop at 6 weeks; also one presternum and 2 suprasternums True
T-F After attachment of ribs sternal bands fuse in caudalcephalo direction False- fuse in cephalocaudal direction
UT-F Besides the lower part of the bands the presternum and suprasternums are also incorporated into the manubrium False- Upper part of the bands
T-F Sternum becomes cartilagenous during fusion of sternal bands True
T-F Clavicals articulate with the suprasternal cartilages which join the manubrium True
Fusion of the cartilagenous sternal components completed at; 7 weeks, 8 weeks or 9 weeks 9 Weeks
Ossification begins about_____ months of fetal development 5
Segmentation into sternebrae develops secondarily due to the influence of the_____ Ribs
Failure of the sternal bands to fuse results in Cleft sternum
Hole in the body of sternum due to defect in chondrification Perforated sternum
Notched xiphoid process is the result of what Failure of inferior sternal bands to fuse
Ossified suprasternal cartilages that failed to attach to manubrium Suprasternal bones
T-F Appendicular skeleton develops from unsegmented somatic mesenchyme of lateral plate origin True
When do the limb buds of the appendicular skeleton become visible 5 weeks
At the apex of limb bud the surface ectoderm is thickened forming the______ apical ectodermal ridge
At weeks ____ limbs reach the cartilagenous stage 6-7
Age at which primary centers of ossification appear Varies depending on the specific bone
Differentiation is in a______ direction in a limb proximodistal
Most epiphyses have fused with diaphysis by the ____ year 20th
First of all bones to begin to ossifiy Clavicle
Week in which the clavicle begins to ossifiy week 5
Which bone has the last secondary center of ossification to appear and what year Clavicle, In the 20th year
What makes the clavicle atypical in its ossification It has both intramembranous and some endochondral ossification
Primary ossification center of the scapula forms what...and in what week Body, spine, and most of the acromion...8th week of intrautrine life
Secondary centers for _____ appears at one year and fuses at puberty coracoid process
where do the primary centers of ossification form for the humerus, radius, and ulna and what week In the diaphyses, 8th week intrauterine life
Where do the secondary centers of ossification for the humerus, radius, and ulna form and at what time In the epiphyses(usally in distal epiphyses first), 1-14 years
T-F the carpals are all cartilagenous at birth; each forms a primary center of ossification at the same time False- each forms a primary center at different ages
What year are all carpals ossified 15-20 years of age
Metacarpals and phalanges have single primary ossification centers at_____weeks of fetal development 8-12
Metacarpals have secondary centers of ossification only_____. Phalanges have secondary centers only______. Distal epiphyses, proximal epiphyses
Os coxa has three primary centers of ossification where are they and when are they formed Ilium, Pubis, Ischium, 3-5 months fetal life
Age in which all three portions of the os coxa are fused 17
Patella is a sesamoid bone which develops within the quadriceps tendon. In what year does it begin to ossify and when is it finished 4th year completed at puberty
Permits shoulders to be approximated Compete or partial absence of the clavicles
Congential absence of a limb or limbs Amelia
Small bone attaches a hand or foot to trunk meromelia
Very short limbs Micromelia
"Mermaid" deformity Sirenomelia
Fusion of one or more fingers or toes Syndactyly
Increase in number of fingers or toes Polydactyly
Abnormal cleft between the 2nd and 4th metacarpals Lobster claw
Sole of foot inverted and plantar flexed Club foot
Partial absence of limbs Hemimelia
Mesenchyme between developing bones differentiates into fibrous or cartilagenous tissue
Synovial joints arise from_____ in the____ month between______ clefts, 3rd, developing bones
Ligaments develop from______ in region surrounding the developing joint Mesenchyme
Created by: mgjengdahl