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Histo 2 - NWHSU

Hisology 2 MASH notes

QuestionAnswer
What symptoms would be caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia? Compression of urethra, urination difficulties, urine retention
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that absorbs 85% of the water from the filtrate. proximal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that is a target of aldosterone. distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that is highly acidophilic and has a dense micovillus border. proximal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that contains simple squamous epithelium. thin segment
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that forms the interstitial concentration-osmotic gradient. thin segment
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that is the only site of glucose absorption from the ultra filtrate. proximal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that contains the macula densa. distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that is a target of ADH and becomes permeable to water when stimulated by ADH. distal tubule and collecting duct
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that forms the slit pores of the filtration barrier. podocytes
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that secretes K+ in response to aldosterone. distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that supports the glomerular capillary loop. distal tubule
Where are the justaglomerular cells located and what are their function? Wall of afferent arteriole; secrete renin
The internal urethral sphincter is formed from ____. Middle circular smooth muscle
The external urethral sphincter is formed by _____. Skeletal muscle of pelvic diaphragm
What is a characteristic of chronic renal failure? Uremia
Nephrotic syndrome associated with diabetes mellitus is due to an abnormality in the _____. glomerular basement membrane
Where is the internal urethral sphincter in males? neck of bladder behind prostatic urethra
Where is the internal urethral sphincter in females? around neck of bladder and entire urethra
What are the podocyte contributions to the renal filtration barrier? slit pores and slit membrane
Which cells of the kidney may function to support the glomerulus and maintain the glomerular basal lamina? mesengial cells
Renin is secreted by the _____ cells which are located in the wall of the ____. juxtaglomerular cells; afferent arterioles
List the components of the renal filtration barrier beginning from inside the glomerulus. 1) fenestrated endothelium without diaphragms; 2) basal lamina at endothelium; 3) podocytes which are fused; 4) slit pores with slit membranes
What cytology of the proximal tubule cell suggests its function? Microvilli for absorption and lateral basal infoldings
What happens to the sugar level in the blood in a person with low levels of insulin? increases
What happens to sugar level in the urine in a person with low levels of insulin? increases
What can be dangerous about persistent low levels of insulin? dehydration and acidosis
What is the function of the macula densa? sensory
Other than phagocytosis, give one possible role of mesagium. maintenance of the glomerular membrane
Specialized area of the distal tubule which may be sensory. macula densa
Aldosterone stimulates the cells of the distal tubule to ________.. absorb sodium and secrete potassium
Is the prostatic urethra lined by transitional epithelium? True
Does the penile portion of the urethra contain mucus glands in the lamina propria? True
Does the membranous portion of the male urethra pass through the urogenital diaphragm? True
Does the urinary bladder contain three poorly defined layers of smooth muscle? True
Is the urinary bladder linded by transitional epithelium? True
Does the urinary blader contain no glands in the lamina propria? True
Epithelium of the prostatic urethra is ________. transitional epithelium
The conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I is stimulated by ______ which is secreted by _______. renin; juxtaglomerular cells
Hormone that increases blood levels of calcium. parathyroid hormone
Hormone whose secretion is stimulated by adrenocorticotrophic hormone. cortisol
Hormone that increases movement of glucose into the hepatocyte. insulin
Hormone required in infancy for normal brain development. T3 & T4
Hormone that causes the collecting duct to become permeable to water. antidiuretic hormone
Hormone that increases blood glucose by glycogenolysis. Glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol
Hormone whose secretion is stimulated by elevated blood potassium. Aldosterone
Hormone that causes ciliogenesis in the oviduct epithelium. estrogen
Hormone that stimulates the secretory phase of the endometrium. progesterone
Hormone that causes growth of ductal epithelium in the mammary gland during a normal ovarian cycle.
Hormone that stimulates milk synthesis in lactating mammary gland. prolactin
Hormone secreted by the interstitial stroma glands of the ovary. estrogen
Hormone that stimulates glycogen formation in the vaginal epithelium. progesterone
Hormone that inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. epinephrine and norepinephrine
Hormone that causes glucose to move into most cells. insulin
Hormone that causes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. glucagon
Hormone that causes the formation of glucose from amino acids.
Hormone that decreases blood potassium. aldosterone
Hormone secreted by the neurons of the hypothalamus.
Hormone responsible fo redevelopment of the ovarian follicle. follicle stimulating hormone
Hormone secreted due to stimulation primarily by ACTH. cortisol
Hormone responsible for ovulation. leuteinizing hormone - surge
Hormone responsible for breast development in puberty. human chorionic gonadotrophin
High blood levels of this hormone facilitate the conversation of norepinephrine to epinephrine. cortisol
Hormone that stimulates testosterone synthesis and secretion by the Leydig cells. luteinizing hormone
This hormone stimulates secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum in the normal ovarian cycle. luteinizing hormone
Hormone that stimulates secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum in pregnancy. human chorionic gonadotrophin
Enzymes required for the conversion of thyroglobulin to active T3 and T4. lysosomal enzymes
FSH in the male stimulates secretion of _____ by the ____. androgen binding protein; sertoli cells
Estrogen is synthesized and secreted by the ______. interstitial cells of the stroma
What effect does follicular estrogen have on the adenohypophysis? increases LH and decreases FSH
Describe the function of the epididymus. stores sperm, stimulates functional maturation
The accessory male productive organ that secrets a product high in fructose and prostaglandins. seminal vesicle
The accessory male productive organ that secrets acid phosphotase. prostate
What male reproductive organ has a duct that joins the ejaculatory dct and secretes a lubricating mucs? bulbourethral gland
What male reproductive organ secretes products which stimulate functional maturation of spermatozoa? epididymis
What male reproductive organ contains motile cilia? efferent duct
High local levels of testosterone are required for spermatogenesis. How is this accomplished? FSH causes sertoli cells to secrete androgen binding protein which binds testosterone secreted by leydig cells to produce high levels in the seminiferous tubule.
In spermatogenesis, cytokinesis is completed at the end of _____. spermiogenesis
Which male accessory gland secretes acid phosphatase and fibrinolysin? prostate
In penile erection, blood flows from the _____ artery into the _____. helicine; corpus cavernosa and corpora spongiosum
What cells comprise the lining of the prepubescent testis? sertoli cells and germ cells
Give the two major requirements for spermatogenesis. high local levels of testosertone, intimate contact with sertoli cells
What is the most common disorder of the prostate gland? benign prostatic hyperplasia
In penile erection, ____ stimulation causes constriction of the helcine artery and _____ stimulation causes dilation or relaxation. sympathetic; parasympathetic
What cells are in the adluminal compartment of the blood-testis barrier? primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa
The ____ cells secrete testosterone in response to ____. This is sequestered in the seminiferous tubule by _____., a molecule secreted by the sertoli cell in response to ____. leydig cells; LH; androgen binding protein; FSH
In spermatogenesis, the primary spermatocytes develop from the spermatogonia by process of ___. mitosis and differentiation
What male reproductive organs have ducts that join the ejaculatory duct? seminal vesicle and vas deferens
What male reproductive organs are lined by pseudostrtified columnar epithelium with sterocilia? epididymis
What male reproductive organ may form condensations? prostate
Which accessory reproductive gland in the male secretes prostaglandins? seminal vesicle
In which portion of the male reproductive system do sperm reach functional maturity? epididymis
Created by: sdschwartz