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MK Histology

Cell Biology (PREMATRIC)

QuestionAnswer
The Cell -Basic structural & functional unit of the body -Performs respiration, digestion, reproduction, excretion, & movement -the structure is highly organized. -most cells share common features (differences in features are related to cell's specific function
Endosomes -are the result of endocytosis -transport of endocytosed (engulfed) material -membrane bound vesicle -early endosomes sort and recycle proteins -late endosomes form lysosomes (biogenesis)
Lysosomes -digestion -specialized membrane resists being digested by 4.5 pH inside.
Perioxisomes oxidative digestion
Plasmalemma -selective barrier -cell signaling
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum bind ribosomes for protein synthesis and modification
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum lipid and steroid metabolism
Golgi Protein modification, sort and packaging
Mitochondria aerobic energy supply
Cytoskeletal elements -motility -adhesion -extra & intracellular transport -cell division
Lipid droplets storage of fatty acids
Nucleus -storage & use of genome -Cellular regulation: houses genetic material, which directs all cellular activities, & regulates cellular structure -Production: produces ribosomal subunits in nucleolus and exports them into cytoplasm for assembly into ribosom
Plasma Membrane 1. selective barrier 2. structural integrity 3. cell-cell recognition
Ways to transport of small molecules across the plasma membrane 1. Diffusion 2. Carrier proteins (active or passive) 3. Channel proteins (ion selective, downhill gradient)
Endocytosis engulfing a particle 1. pinocytosis (drinking) 2. phagocytosis (eating) 3. receptor-mediated endocytosis
Exocytosis -constitutive pathway (cell makes a product and immediately releases it) -regulated secretory pathway
Cytoskeletal elements 1. microtubules 2. actin filaments 3. intermediate filaments
Microtubules -intracellular transport -mitotic spindle (miosis/mitosis) -cilia and flagella
Actin filaments -anchorage -microvilli -locomotion -cell processes
Intermediate filaments -cell to cell junctions -cell to extracellular material junctions
Created by: Kanarema