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Orgo ch 3

Where does bonding occur? In the outermost electron shell of atoms
What do the quantum numbers n, l, and m describe? The size, shape, and number of atomic orbitals an element possesses.
What is a molecular orbital? They occur when two atomic orbitals combine
What is the difference between a bonding orbital and an antibonding orbital? Bonding orbitals are produced when the signs of the wave functions of the 2 combining molecular orbitals are the same, and it is lower-energy, i.e. more stable. An antibonding orbital happens when the signs are different; it is higher-energy, less stable.
What is a sigma bond? A single bond
What is a pi bond? It forms when two p-orbitals line up in a parallel fashion, their electron clouds overlap and a bonding molecular orbital is formed. A pi bond on top of an existing single bond is a double bond. A sigma bond and two pi-bonds is a triple bond.
Are pi bonds stronger than sigma bond? No. Pi bonds are weaker, but double and triple bonds are stronger than single bonds.
What is the electron configuration of carbon? 1s2 2s2 2p2
How many electrons does carbon need to complete its octet? 4
What are hybrid orbitals? They are formed by mixing different types of orbitals, using math. 3 p-orbitals and 1 s-orbitals combine to form 4 newly shaped, identical sp3 orbitals.
Describe the shape of sp3 orbitals. The 4 orbitals point toward the vertices of a tetrahedron to minimize repulsion.
How is hybridization accomplished? By promoting one of the 2s electrons into the 2p-z orbital. This produces four valence orbitals, each with one electron, which can be mathematically mixed to provide hybrids. Hybridization is a way of making all of the bonds to a central atom equivalent.
What is an sp2 orbital? The hybrid of 1 s-orbital and 2 p-orbitals. 3 hybrid orbitals are formed.
What kind of bonds are sp2 orbitals seen in? Alkenes
What is the s character of sp2 hybrid orbitals? 33%. The p percent is 66 percent.
What is the degree of separation between sp2 orbitals? 120 degrees
How do orbitals in ethylene line up? The sp2 hybrids will participate in CH single bonds, the other hybrid orbital will line up with the unhybridized p-orbital, forming the single and double bonds in C=C
How are triple bonds formed and what hybrids are involved? 2 p-orbitals form pi bonds. The 3rd p-orbital combines with s to form 2 sp hybrids oriented 180 degrees apart.
Created by: schoe
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