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History Final

Chapters 9, 10, and 11

Iconoclast movement against idols
Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire
Church of Hagia Sophia Museum - was once a church & mosque - great arch from Byzantine Empire
Constantinople Capital of Byzantine Empire
Justinian Created the Justinian Code
Justinian Code code of laws
Schism split over icons. creates Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches
Ka 'bah Islamic shrine in Mecca
Muhammad Founder of Islam
Allah God of Islam
Qu'ran Holy book of Islam
5 Pillars of Islam 1. Alms poor 2. fast Ramadan 3. Confession faith Muham prophet Allah God 4. make hajj to Mecca 5. pray 5 times a day
Islam Religion founded by Muhammad
Muslim follwer of Islam
Caliph Muslim leader has both religious and political power
Sunni 1/2 group after split in Islam over who should lead after Muhammad's death.
Shi'ah 1/2 group after split in Islam over who should lead after Muhammad's death.
Mamluks Nomadic Asian Turks who fought in Muslim armies.
Islamic advances science, math, & medicine
Abbasid Caliphate Golden Age of Muslim civilization - capital in Baghdad.
Jihad Holy war
Dome of the Rock Famous mosque in Jerusalem where Muhammad is said to have ascended to Heaven.
Germanic Culture and origins From Scandinavia, patriarchal, women some power, war-like.
Franks Germanic people and strongest kingdom after the fall of Rome
Monasticism Monks living in Monasteries
Clovis King of Franks who converted to Cathlicism and allied with the church.
Donation of Pepin Land taken by Pepin from Lombards and given to pope for Vatican City
Vikings Barbarians from Scandinavia who raided Europe in their long boats. Target = monasteries.
Fief land given to a vassal
Lord gives land to vassal
Vassal pledge military service for land
Feudal system political system of land for political and military support.
Manorialism Economic system - lord gives land to peasant (serf) for payment, work.
Battle of Hastings William the Conqueror's battle against the English during the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest William the Conqueror's conquest of England
Domesday Book Survey of all possession by William the Conqueror
Common Law In England, laws common to all in the land.
Magna Carta Limited the power of the king, signed by King John.
Parliament Representative body of Britain
Estates General France's representative government
College of Cardinals select the pope.
Crusaders with red cross on chest, fought Muslims in Holy Land
Crusades Fight to re-take Holy Land. Only the 1st Crusade was sucessful.
Urban II Called for the 1st and only successful Crusade
Heresy/heretic person whose ideas go against the Catholic Church
Inquisition Department of the church that investigated heresy
Richard the Lion Heart King of England, fought 3rd Crusade, failed to take Jerusalem
Three-field system farming improvement - plant 2/3 of field, 1/3 fallow
Chivalry knights lived by this code to fight fair and protect women, children & clergy
Curriculum course of study
Battle of Tours Carles Martel stops Muslims in W. Europe
Charlemagne Unified Franks & emphasized education during the early Middle Ages
Roman Catholic Church unified people during Middle Ages
Excommunication Put out of the Roman Catholic church
Henry II established court system in England
Fredrick Barbarossa feudal territories, try capture Italian cities, lost Battle Legano
Thomas Acquinas argued both reason and faith can be used to solve moral question
Magna Carta Limited the power of monarchy, no raise tax without nobles, follow law, etc.
Gothic Architecture architecture of the Middle Ages with high ceilings, space, windows.
Catholic Church unified people, gave strength during the Middle Ages
serf peasant tied to land often for entire life.
flagellants those that beat themselves with sticks & whips during the Black Death
Joan of Arc French girl, inspired by God to lead the French over English 100 year war.
Orleans Famous battle won by Joan of Arc in Hundred Year's War
War of the Roses Civil War in England between Houses Lancaster/York over who will be king
Sovereign Power absolute power
Great schism split in church between France & Rome: 2 popes, one in each area
Black Death cause and effect. By fleas from rats - killed 1/3 population Europe, 35 million Asia
Middle class Revolted against nobles in Middle Ages and supported the king
Hundred Years War Started by England's Edward II who claimed the French throne
Simony buying and selling of church offices
Religions Judaism, Christianity & Islam
Economics study of goods and service production, money
Social history how groups get together, rules of behavior, and look at families, religion, education, and factors of life.