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Bio 3 Reproduction


What are the phases of the cell cycle? Interphase (G1, S, G2) and M phase
What happens in G1 phase? During G1 phase, aka the Presynthetic Gap, cells create organelles for energy and protein production.
What happens in S phase? Synthesis: cells replicate the genetic material so that there are 2 sister chromatids joined at the centromere. Ploidy does not change ---- there are still 46 chromosomes, but 92 chromatids.
What happens in G2 phase? The post-synthetic gap is for quality control.
What is M phase? Mitosis and cytokinesis, when the cell divides.
In what form are chromosomes during interphase? Chromosomes are in chromatin form, i.e. less condense.
What are centrioles? Organelles kept in the centrosome (an area outside the nucleus) that are responsible for chromosome movement. They move to opposite poles during prophase and form spindle fibers made of microtubules.
What are asters? The points where chromosomes attach to spindle fibers.
What are the stages of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis.
What happens during prophase? Chromosomes condense, centrioles move to poles and the spindle apparatus forms. The nuclear membrane and nucleoli disappear. Kinetochores, with attached kinetochore fibers, appear at the chromosome centromere.
What happens during metaphase? Kinetochore fibers interact with the spindle to align chromosomes at the metaphase plate.
What happens during anaphase? Centromeres split so each chromatid is separate, then they're pulled to opposite poles by the shortening of kinetochore fibers.
What happens during telophase? The spindle apparatus disappears, nuclear membrane and nucleoli reform, and the chromosomes uncoil.
What happens during cytokinesis? The cell divides, splitting the cytoplasm and organelles so that each daughter cell has what it needs to survive.
What are the types of asexual reproduction? Binary fission, budding, Regeneration, and Parthogenesis
What is parthogenesis? A type of asexual reproduction where an adult develops from an unfertilized egg.
What is meiosis? 1 round of replication and 2 rounds of division that produce gametes, sex cells.
What is meiosis I? Reductional division that results in homologous chromosomes separating and generating haploid daughter cells.
What is meiosis II? Equational division, similar to mitosis, separates sister chromatids and gives 4 unique haploid cells.
What happens in prophase I? The duplicated chromatin condenses, spindle apparatus forms, nucleoli and nuclear membrane disappears, homologous chromosomes intertwine (synapsis) resulting in a tetrad of 4 chromatids which cross over.
What happens in metaphase I? Tetrads align at the equatorial plane, each pair attaches to a separate spindle fiber by its kinetochore.
What happens in anaphase I? homologous pairs separate (called disjunction).
What happens in telophase I? The nuclear membrane forms, and cells divide by cytokinesis into 2 daughter cells. These cells are haploid, but each chromosome still has its sister chromatids.
What happens in prophase II? Centrioles move to the poles and the spindle forms.
What happens in metaphase II? The chromosomes align, centromeres divide, and centromeres split.
What happens in anaphase II? The sister chromatids are pulled to the poles by the spindle fibers.
What happens in telophase II? The nuclear membranes form and and the cells divide into 2 haploid cells.
What are the 2 functional components of the testes? Seminiferous tubules - where sperm are made and nourished by Sertoli cells. Interstitial cells (cells of Lydig) - secrete testosterone and other hormones, androgens
What is the epididymis? Where the sperm mature, which takes about 72 days. The sperm gain motility in the form of a flagellum.
Where does the sperm go during ejaculation? It moves through the ejaculatory duct and urethra, exits through the penis.
What makes seminal fluid? The seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland.
What is the sperm pathway? SEVEN UP : Seminiferous tubules, Epididymis, Vas Deferens, Ejaculatory Duct, nothing, Urethra, Penis
What is spermatogenesis and where does it occur? It forms sperm through meiosis and occurs in the seminiferous tubules?
What are spermatogonia? diploid stem cells which replicate their genetic material and develop into diploid primary spermatocytes
What is the product of Meiosis I? haploid secondary spermatocytes
What is the product of meiosis II? haploid spermatids which turn to spermatozoa
What is an acrosome? The cap of a sperm, which is needed to penetrate the ovum
What are the female gonads? Ovaries which consist of thousands of follicles, multilayered sacs that contain immature ova
What hormones do the ovaries produce? estrogen and progesterone
Where does the egg go once per month? Into the peritoneal sac which lines the abdominal cavity then into the fallopian tube or oviduct (lined with cilia)
Describe the beginning of oogenesis. All oogenia are formed during fetal development and at birth, we have predifferentiated cells called primary oocytes (2n), stuck in prophase I.
What happens to oocytes after menarche? 1 primary oocyte per month will complete meiosis I, which creates a secondary oocyte and a polar body. The secondary oocyte is frozen in metaphase II until fertilized.
When does meiosis II for oogenesis occur? It happens when sperm, using acrosomal enzymes, penetrates 2 cell layers around the oocytes (zona pellucida and corona radiata)
What are the products of meiosis II? mature ovum and polar body
What happens after menopause? The ovaries are less sensitive to hormones FSH (follicle stimulating) and LH (luteinizing) and eventually atrophy.
What happens to hormone levels after menopause? FSH and LH levels shoot up because there is no estrogen and progesterone feedback.
When can secondary oocytes be fertilized? within 24 hours of ovulation
What are acrosomal enzymes? Digest the corona radiata and penetrate the zona pellucida of the ovum
What happens at fertilization? At contact with the membrane, the sperm forms a tubelike acrosomal apparatus which extends and penetrates the membrane. Then the nucleus can enter the ovum which undergoes a cortical reaction.
What is the cortical reaction of fertilization? Calcium ions, which increase metabolic rate, are released to the cytoplasm which leads to formation of the fertilization membrane, impenetrable to other sperm
How are monozygotic twins formed? when a single zygote splits
How are dizygotic twins formed? when 2 eggs are released in the same cycle and both are implanted on the uterine wall
Created by: schoe
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