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Bio 2

Cellular Respiration

What are energy carriers and specific examples? High energy electron shuttles between the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
What are the components of ATP and where is the energy located? ATP is made of the nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose, and 3 phosphates. The energy is in the phosphate bonds. Making ADP and AMP generates 7kcal/mol.
What are NAD+ and FAD and where do they go? electron carriers, coenzymes that accept electrons during glucose oxidation. They are carried to the electron chain and liberated to produce ATP which oxidizes them to their original form.
Where is glycolysis and where does it occur? A series of reactions that break down glucose, occurs in the cytoplasm (with or without oxygen).
What is the net reaction for glycolysis? Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ ---> 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 H2O
What is the total and net output of ATP from glycolysis? The total output is 4, net is 2.
What are the 2 fates of pyruvate in glycolysis? aerobic -- further oxidation through the mitochondrian electron chain. Anaerobic – fermentation
What is fermentation? pyruvate's fate in the absence of oxygen
Where does alcohol fermentation occur? In yeast and some bacteria
What is the reaction for alcohol fermentation? Pyruvate --> CO2 + Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde + NADH + H+ -----> Ethanol + NAD+
Where does lactic acid fermentation occur? fungi, bacteria, and our muscles
What is the reaction for lactic acid fermentation? Pyruvate + NADH + H+ ------> Lactic acid + NAD+
What are some qualities of lactic acid? It lowers the local pH, and it converts back to pyruvate in the Cori cycle
Cellular Respiration -- Heterotrophs versus Autotrophs Autotrophs: 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy --> C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 Heterotrophs: Glucose + 6O2 -----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Glucose bonds are broken and the energy release is coupled to perform useful work.
Pyranose a glucose ring that can come in alpha or beta form
What is the ATP production in cellular respiration? 36-38 ATP per glucose
What is the final electron acceptor of cellular respiration? O2
What are the 3 phases of cellular respiration? pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
Where does pyruvate decarboxylation take place? Pyruvate moves from the cytoplasm into the mito matrix
What are the reactions of pyruvate decarboxylation? Pyruvate loses CO2. Pyruvate (2 Carbons left) then binds to coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA Pyruvate (3C) + CoA + NAD+ ----> NADH + H+ + Acetyl CoA (2C)
How many NAD+ are reduced in pyruvate decarboxylation? 1 per reaction, 2 per glucose
How many reactions are in the TCA Cycle? 8
What is the first reaction of the TCA cycle? acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate (4C) ----> Citrate (6C)
What happens overall in the TCA cycle? 2 CO2 are released and oxaloacetate is remade.
What is the energy production up to the TCA cycle? 2 ATP from glycolysis, 2 NADH from glycolysis, 2 NADH from pyruvate decarboxylation
What is the energy output from the TCA cycle? 2 x 3 NADH = 6 NADH 2 x 1 FADH2 = 2 FADH2 2 x 1 GTP = 2 ATP
What is the overall reaction for the TCA Cycle? 2 Acetyl Co-A + 6NAD+ + 2FAD + 2GDP + 2Pi + 4 H2O -----> 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP + 4 H+ + 2 CoA
What happens in the electron transport chain during oxidative phosphorylation? Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed along carriers, enzymes called cytochromes, which release free energy for ATP production
What are the 3 major complexes of the cytochromes used in the electron transport chain? NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) b-c, complex (complex III) cytochrome oxidase (complex IV)
What are the steps of oxidative phosphorylation? 1.NADH gives electrons to FMN - flavin mononucleotide, part of complex I 2.Electrons pass to carrier Q (ubiquinone) - a small hydrophobic molecule 3.Electrons pass to complex III, then IV 4.O2 takes electrons from cytochrome a3, a protein in complex IV
How many ATP do NADH and FADH2 form? NADH gives 3 ATP and FADH2 gives 2 ATP.
Where and how are carbs stored? In the liver as glycogen, which converts to G6P, a glycolytic intermediate.
Where and how are fats stored? In adipose tissue as triglycerides, 3 fatty acids esterified to glycerol (3C) for storage. These then convert to PGAL, a glycolytic intermediate.
How are fatty acids activated and used? Fatty acids are activated in the cytoplasm with 2 ATP, then undergo beta oxidation in the mitochondrial matrix where acetyl-CoA is made. Each round creates 1 NADH and 1 FADH2. Removing 2 Cs at a time, close to 100 ATP can be generated by 1 fat molecule.
How are proteins incorporated into metabolism? Proteins are only used when carbs are insufficient. Transaminases remove the amine moiety from amino acids to form α-keto acids. These can convert into acetyl-CoA or intermediates of the TCA cycle.
How does the proton pump in oxidative phosphorylation work? As electrons are given up, free protons go to the matrix and accumulate. The protons are pumped out of the matrix into the IM space at each complex, which becomes positively charged and acidic. The protons then passively flow back through ATP synthases.
What do ATP synthases do? Couple energy from the protons flowing back into the matrix to the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. This is called oxidative phosphorylation.
Created by: schoe
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