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AP US History

The Southern Colonies

Glossary TermDefinition
King James I He granted the Royal Charter in 1606 to the Virginia Company of London in order to create the American colonies.
Virginia Company of London This joint stock company was founded by a group of merchants, knights and gentlemen so that they could obtain land in America. They were granted their Royal Charter in 1606 by King James I.
Royal Charter Was granted to the Virginia Company of London by King James I in 1606, legitimizing any incorporated body to obtain land and giving the monarch's approval.
Jamestown, 1607 The first English colonists were brought to this military outpost by Captain John Smith.
John Smith Captain of the ship that brought the first English colonists to Jamestown in 1607. and leader of the Virginia Colony based at Jamestown.
Pocahontas Daughter of Powhatan, she ‘saved’ John Smith’s life and later helped to spread tobacco through Europe when she moved to England with husband John Rolfe.
Powhatan Algonquian chief who headed a confederacy of tribes in the Chesapeake region. Colonists depended on the Indians' corn for food, which the Indians traded for European goods, including iron and steel.
"The Starving Time" It occurred in the winter of 1609 and only 60 out of the original 500 settlers in Jamestown survived.
John Rolfe Was responsible for introducing tobacco to Virginia, which changed the colony from one of aimless adventures into a society of dedicated planters.
tobacco This plant provided the economic underpinning of the Chesapeake economy and determined patterns of settlement and the social structure of the region.
indenture A contract in which poor immigrants traded four to seven years of labor in exchange for passage to the colonies and food and shelter once they were there.
freedom dues The payment, usually of corn and clothes, that a colonial employer was obligated to give an indentured servant on the expiration of his or her contract.
House of Burgesses Virginia's assembly, which was elected by the colony's inhabitants. This was the first representative assembly in the British Colonies.
Royal Colony, 1624 Opechancanough’s uprising led to a royal investigation which made Virginia into this type of colony, a colony that was subject to the royal government and governor.
Lord Baltimore In 1632, Charles I gave this Catholic friend six and a half million acres in the Chesapeake region, which he used to establish the colony of Maryland.
Maryland A Catholic settlement founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore which enacted the Toleration Act of 1649; one of the first laws that explicitly dictated religious tolerance
headright Land given to free settlers to encourage migration to the Chesapeake.
servant labor system A type of labor in which employers rely on paid employees, rather than family labor or slaves. Servants were usually indentured for a limited amount of time,. and their payment was the cost of passage, food, and shelter, not cash wages.
Free status The privileges of poor white farmers in Chesapeake society. This status included owning property, marrying, having families, bequeathing property and freedom to descendants, moving and associating with others freely, serving on juries, and voting.
Navigation Acts Legislation passed in England in the 1650's and 1660's. These laws required that colonial goods had to be shipped through British ports on British ships to funnel trade into the hands of English merchants, shippers, and seamen.
John Colleton The Barbadian planter who, along with seven other men, founded Carolina, the first colony on mainland North America to rely extensively on slave labor.
Barbados A small island in the West Indies, which became the most profitable part of the British New World empire as the result of a flourishing sugar industry. The location from which the first settlers of South Carolina came.
Slave System Was created for cheap labour, which was the driving force behind the tobacco industry.
Bacon’s Rebellion An uprising in 1676 in the Virginia colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. Response to lack of support by Gov Berkeley and the House of Burgesses for settlers on the frontier who were being attacked by native Americans. Almost successful until Bacon dies.
grandees The elite planters who dominated Virginia's economy and government. They were greatly resented by ordinary Virginians, who felt that they operated the government for their own benefit and ignored the needs and concerns of the poor.
Bacon’s Laws Laws passed in virginia in June of 1676, giving local settlers more power over the government and controlling the ability of officeholders from using their positions for personal gain.
joint stock company A company made up of a group of shareholders. each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Richard Hakluyt An English proponent of colonization who argued that colonization would provide an outlet for the poor, a source of goods, and a market for England.
Opechancanough Powhatan's brother who became supreme chief after Powhatan's death in 1618 and shortly thereafter led an all-out assault on the English settlers in an attempt to prevent the colony from becoming a permanent settlement.
yeoman planter A person who owned a small plot of land sufficient to support a family and tilled largely by family members and perhaps a few servants.
seasoning In reference to African slaves, a term that means acclimation to the natural environment of the New World and the repressive confines of slavery. Chesapeake planters tended to purchase slaves from the West Indies, where they had already adjusted.
going abroad African slaves' practice of seeking out the company of other slaves on neigboring plantations. This was a source of difficulty for masters because slaves might go from innocent socializing to planning to run away or rebel.
Created by: alfromcanada