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M.H. IV Final Review

This study stack is the final review for Music History IV popular music section.

QuestionAnswer
George Washington Dixon The first white performer to establish a wide reputation as a “blackface” entertainer.
Thomas Dartmouth Rice White actor born into a poor family in New York’s Seventh Ward. As a blackface performer, he introduced the “Jim Crow” character.
Dan Emmett An American songwriter and entertainer, founder of the first troupe of the blackface minstrel tradition.
Stephen Foster* Regarded as the first important composer of American popular song. ex. “Oh! Susanna,” “Old Folks at Home,” “My Old Kentucky Home, Good Night,” “Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair,” and “Beautiful Dreamer.”
Charles K. Harris The most successful blues crooner of the late 1940s and early 1950s. Brown was a soft-spoken, Texas-born pianist who studied classical piano as a child and graduated from college in 1942 at the age of twenty.
Scott Joplin African American composer and pianist; the best-known composer of ragtime music.
James Reese Europe* Talented African American pianist and conductor. Played ragtime piano in cabarets and acted as a musical director for several all-black vaudeville revues. In 1913.
Vernon & Irene Castle Husband-and-wife dance team who popularized the tango and the fox-trot. The Castles attracted millions of middle-class Americans into ballroom classes
Original Dixieland Jazz Band* White group from New Orleans led by the cornetist Nick LaRocca. Their recording of “Livery Stable Blues” and “Dixieland Jass Band One-Step” was released in March 1917, and within a few weeks, it had sparked a national fad for jazz music.
Paul Whiteman Bandleader for the most successful dance orchestra of the 1920s. He billed himself as the “King of Jazz,” widened the market for jazz-based dance music, and paved the way for the Swing Era.
Irving Berlin Tin Pan Alley songwriter. His most famous songs include “Alexander’s Ragtime Band,” “Blue Skies,” “Cheek to Cheek,” “There’s No Business Like Show Business,” “White Christmas,” and “God Bless America.”
Gene Austin* An American singer and songwriter, one of the first "crooners". His 1920s compositions "When My Sugar Walks Down the Street" and "The Lonesome Road" became pop and jazz standards.
Al Jolson* The most popular performer of his generation; his career overlapped the era of vaudeville stage performance and the rise of new media in the 1920s.
George Gershwin The son of an immigrant leatherworker, did much to bridge the gulf between art music and popular music. Studied European classical music but also spent a great deal of time listening to jazz musicians in New York City. Wrote 'Porgy and Bess'.
W.C. Handy The “Father of the Blues." Cornet player and composer. Co-founded the first African American–owned music publishing house. His first sheet music hit was “Memphis Blues”, and his biggest hit was the song “St. Louis Blues”.
Bessie Smith* Called the “Empress of the Blues,” performed in traveling shows and vaudeville before embarking on a recording career with Columbia Records. Her recordings include W. C. Handy’s “St. Louis Blues” and Irving Berlin’s “Alexander’s Ragtime Band.”
Ma Rainey Popularly known as the “Mother of the Blues,” was the first of the great women blues singers and had a direct influence on Bessie Smith.
Louis Armstrong he established certain core features of jazz, particularly its rhythmic drive and its emphasis on solo instrumental virtuosity.
Blind Lemon Jefferson* The first recording star of the country blues. His first records were released in 1926. Jefferson’s East Texas style features a nasal vocal timbre and sparse guitar accompaniments.
Robert Johnson His guitar playing was so remarkable and idiosyncratic that stories circulated claiming he had sold his soul to the devil to play that way. Johnson died apparently as a victim of poisoning by a jealous husband.
The Carter Family* Born in the isolated foothills of the Clinch Mountains of Virginia, regarded as one of the most important groups in the history of country music.
Jimmie Rodgers* Called the “Singing Brakeman,” he was the most versatile, progressive, and widely influential of all the early country recording artists and was early country music’s biggest recording star.
Woody Guthrie One of the musicians most closely associated with the plight of American workers during the Great Depression. “This Land Is Your Land,” “Talking Dust Bowl Blues,” and “Ludlow Massacre.” After 1940, he was known primarily as a protest singer.
Fletcher Henderson* Musician, bandleader, and arranger; he and his band are widely credited with inspiring the rise of swing music in the 1930s.
Count Basie African American pianist and bandleader; gained much of his early experience as a player and bandleader in Kansas City, Missouri. His band was known for its improvisatory style and strong sense of swing.
Benny Goodman* Clarinetist and popular band leader; known as the “King of Swing.” His popularity and the success of his band helped establish the swing era in the early 1930s. He was the first white bandleader to hire black musicians in his band.
Duke Ellington As a composer and arranger, he devised unusual musical forms, combined instruments in unusual ways, and created complex, distinctive tone colors.
Jay McShann The forefront of blues and hard bop jazz musicians mainly from Kansas City. He assembled own big band, with musicians that included some of the most influential artists of their time. His kind of music became known as "the Kansas City sound"
Glenn Miller* Trombonist and bandleader; formed his own band in 1937. Miller developed a peppy, clean-sounding style that appealed to small-town Midwestern people as well as to the big-city, East and West Coast constituency.
Mills Brothers* An American jazz and pop vocal quartet of the 20th century who made more than 2,000 recordings that combined sold more than 50 million copies, and garnered at least three dozen gold records.
Roy Acuff The most popular hillbilly singer of the swing era; in 1938, joined the regular cast of WSM’s Grand Ole Opry and soon became its biggest star. Acuff performed in a style that was self-consciouslyrooted in southern folk music.
Bob Willis and the Texas Playboys* Fiddler from East Texas whose musical career ran from the 1920s through the 1960s. His group, the Texas Playboys, pioneered western swing music. Bob Wills is today widely regarded as one of the pioneers of modern country and western music.
Frank Sinatra* Born in Hoboken New Jersey into a working-class Italian family. His singing style combined the crooning style of Bing Crosby with the bel canto technique of Italian opera.
Nat "King" Cole The most successful black recording artist of the postwar period. A brilliant piano improviser, he exerted a strong influence on later jazz pianists such as Oscar Peterson and Bill Evans.
The Weavers an American folk music quartet based in the Greenwich Village area of New York City. They sang traditional folk songs from around the world, as well as blues, gospel music, children's songs, labor songs, and American ballads.
Louis Jordan* He led the most successful and influential jump band, the Tympany Five. Jordan was tremendously popular with black listeners and was able to build an extensive white audience during and after World War II.
Charles Brown American blues singer and pianist whose soft-toned, slow-paced blues-club style influenced the development of blues performance during the 1940s and 1950s. He had several hit recordings, including "Driftin' Blues" and "Merry Christmas Baby".[1]
Muddy Waters* Often called the “Father of Chicago Blues,” he was discovered by Allan Lomax in 1941. Waters sang in a country style and was a charismatic performer.
Ruth Brown* Brown signed with the new independent label Atlantic Records. Chart figures suggest that Ruth Brown was the most popular black female vocalist in America between 1951 and 1954.
Big Mama Thornton* Her imposing physique and sometimes malevolent personality helped ensure her survival in the rough-and-tumble world of con artists and gangsters.
Bill Monroe* Born in Kentucky, started playing music at a young age and was influenced by his uncle (a country fiddler) and by a black musician.Monroe started the Blue Grass Boys, and the following year he joined the cast of the Grand Ole Opry.
Joe Turner* “Blues shouter” born in Kansas City. From 1945 to 1951, made recordings with many labels before signing with Atlantic in 1951. “Shake, Rattle, and Roll” (1954) was his biggest rock ’n’ roll record for Atlantic.
Bill Haley & His Comets* Former DJ and western swing bandleader from Pennsylvania who moved toward the R&B jump band in the 1950s. Along with his band, the Comets, Haley recorded commercially successful cover versions of R&B hits.
The Chords* R&B black male vocal group; performed the original version of “Sh-Boom.”
The Crew Cuts* White male vocal group whose cover version of “Sh‑Boom” was one of the two biggest pop hits of 1954.
Kitty Wells Muriel Dearson; married the popular country entertainer Johnny Wright and began appearing with him on the radio in 1938. Her stage name was adopted from an old southern parlor song, “Sweet Kitty Wells.”
Hank Williams The most significant single figure to emerge in country music during the immediate post–World War II period. Williams wrote and sang many songs in the course of his brief career that were enormously popular with country audiences at the time.
Alan Freed DJ and concert promoter dubbed the “Pied Piper” of rock ’n’ roll. Played an important role in broadening the audience for R&B among white teenagers during the early 1950s.
Little Junior's Blues Flames* Little Junior was a successful and influential Memphis blues singer and musician. He is best remembered for his unique voice which has been described as "honeyed," and "velvet-smooth".
Elvis Presley* Known as “The King of Rock ’n’ Roll,” the biggest star to come from the country side of the music world. Born in Tupelo, Mississippi, made his first recordings in Memphis at Sun Records, and later recorded for RCA and became a Hollywood film star.
Buddy Holly Early rock ’n’ roll guitarist, singer, and songwriter from the country/rockabilly side of rock ’n’ roll. Killed tragically at the age of twenty-two in a plane crash.
Chuck Berry* Brilliantly clever and articulate lyricist and songwriter, fine rock ’n’ roll vocal stylist, and pioneering electric guitarist. One of the first black musicians to consciously forge his own R&B styles for appeal to the mass market.
Little Richard* Flamboyant early rock ’n’ roll singer and pianist. Known for his uninhibited shouting style; his hit records include “Tutti-Frutti” and “Long Tall Sally.”
Wanda Jackson Multitalented singer, instrumentalist, and songwriter, known as the “Queen of Rockabilly.”
The Coasters* An American rhythm and blues/rock and roll vocal group hits in the late 1950s. Beginning with "Searchin'" and "Young Blood". Their records are frequently imitated that they became an important part of the doo wop.
Chubby Checker Singer who became famous for his cover version of “The Twist” by Hank Ballard.
Phil Spector Dubbed the “first tycoon of teen,” his studio production techniques are known as the “wall of sound” because of his utilization of dense orchestrations, multiple instruments, and heavy reverb.
Berry Gordy Founder of Motown Records.
The Temptations* Black male vocal group featured with Motown Records in the 1960s. Their song “My Girl” was a Number One hit in 1965.
The Supremes* Black female vocal group who were featured artists with Motown Records in the 1960s. Their song “You Can’t Hurry Love” was a Number One hit in 1966.
Beach Boys*/Brian Wilson Founded in California in 1961, they popularized the “California sound” in the early 1960s. Their hit songs included “Surfin’ Safari,” “Surfer Girl,” “California Girls,” “Surfin’ USA” and “Good Vibrations.”
The Beatles Rock group from Liverpool, England, who dominated American popular music during the mid-1960s and started the “British Invasion.”
The Rolling Stones British rock group who cultivated an image as “bad boys” in deliberate contrast to the friendly public image projected by the Beatles.
Patsy Cline Country music star that helped create that "Nashville sound" into polished arrangements and sophisticated approach to vocal presentation.
Ray Charles Known as the “Genius of Soul”; songwriter, arranger, keyboard player, and vocalist fluent in R&B, jazz, and mainstream pop.
James Brown* The “Godfather of Soul.” He was known for his acrobatic physicality and remarkable charisma on stage. No other single musician has proven to be as influential on the sound and style of black music as James Brown.
Aretha Franklin* “The Queen of Soul,” she began singing gospel music at an early age and had several hit records with Atlantic, including “Respect” in 1967 and “Think” in 1968.
Bob Dylan Urban folk singer and songwriter; he took his stage name from his favorite poet, Dylan Thomas. His songs include hits such as “Blowin’ in the Wind,” “Mr. Tambourine Man,” and “Like a Rolling Stone.”
Jimi Hendrix The most original, inventive, and influential guitarist of the rock era, and the most prominent African American rock musician of the late 1960s.
Buck Owens an American singer and guitarist who had 21 No. 1 hits on the Billboard country music charts with his band, the Buckaroos. They pioneered what came to be called the Bakersfield sound, a city Owens called home and from which he drew inspiration.
Led Zeppelin British hard rock band that formed in London in 1968. Zeppelin’s sledgehammer style of guitar-focused rock music drew on various influences, including urban blues, San Francisco psychedelia, and the virtuoso guitar playing of Jimi Hendrix.
Santana* Born in Mexico, he began his musical career playing guitar in Tijuana. He formed his band in San Francisco in the late 1960s. Their 1971 album Abraxas established a Latin American substream within rock.
Donna Summer* One of the biggest stars to emerge from disco in the 1970s. She sang on several disco classics, including “Love to Love You Baby” (1976) and “Good Times” (1979).
Chic An African-American disco and R&B band. It is known best for its commercially successful disco songs, including "Dance, Dance, Dance (Yowsah, Yowsah, Yowsah)", "Everybody Dance", "Le Freak", "I Want Your Love", "Good Times", and "My Forbidden Lover".
Stevie Wonder An American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer and activist. "Superstition", "Sir Duke", "I Wish" and "I Just Called to Say I Love You".
Carole King Singer-songwriter who wrote many hits in the 1960s with Gerry Goffin. In 1971, the success of her album Tapestry made her a major recording star.
Elton John An English singer, composer and pianist.In his four-decade career John has sold more than 250 million records, making him one of the most successful artists of all time.
The Eagles With five number one singles, six Grammies, five American Music Awards, and six number one albums, the Eagles were one of the most successful musical acts of the 1970s.
Willie Nelson Born in Texas, Nelson was one of the most influential figures in the progressive country movement. Nelson’s rise to national fame came in the mid-1970s, through his association with a group of musicians collectively known as “the Outlaws.”
Waylon Jennings an American country music singer, songwriter, and musician. He rose to prominence as a bassist for Buddy Holly following the break-up of The Crickets.
Townes van Zandt Van Zandt was a singer-songwriter who became a cult hero of the progressive country movement.
Bob Marley His songs of determination, rebellion, and faith, rooted in the Rastafarian belief system, found a worldwide audience that reached from America to Japan and from Europe to Africa.
Parliament (Funkadelic) A funk, soul and rock music collective. Known for top-notch musicianship, politically charged lyrics, outlandish concept albums and memorable live performances. They have a large cult following.
Marvin Gaye Starting as a member of the doo-wop group The Moonglows in the late fifties, he ventured into a solo career after the group disbanded in 1960 signing with the Tamla Records subsidiary of Motown Records.
Sugarhill Gang Harlem-based crew who recorded the first rap hit, “Rapper’s Delight.” The record reached Number Four on the R&B charts and Number Thirty-six on the pop charts and introduced hip-hop to millions of people throughout the United States and abroad.
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five* DJ and leader of the furious five, he developed many of the turntable techniques that characterized early hip-hop music.
Michael Jackson Began his performing career as a member of the Jackson Five. He achieved unprecedented success with his 1982 album Thriller,and his elaborately produced music videos helped boost the new medium of music videos.
Bruce Springsteen Springsteen’s music and personal image evoked the rebellious rock ’n’ rollers of the 1950s and the socially conscious folk rockers of the 1960s. His songs reflected his working-class origins and sympathies.
Paul Simon Got his start in the 1960s as a member of the famous folk rock duo Simon and Garfunkel. His album Graceland (1986) was a global collaboration recorded in South Africa, England, and the United States.
Madonna From the late 1980s through the 1990s, Madonna’s popularity was second only to Michael Jackson’s. She created controversial songs and music videos, including “Papa Don’t Preach” (1986), “Express Yourself” (1989), and “Like a Prayer” (1989).
Run-D.M.C. (with Aerosmith)* Master Jay (Jason Mizell, b. 1965). Perhaps the most influential act in the history of rap music, they established a hard-edged, rock-tinged style that shaped the sound and sensibility of later rap music.
M.C. Hammer Rapper from Oakland, California; hit the charts in 1990 with Please Hammer Don’t Hurt ’Em,which held the Number One position for twenty-one weeks and sold over ten million copies, becoming the bestselling rap album of all time.
Public Enemy Public Enemy was organized around a core set of members who met as college students, drawn together by their interest in hip-hop culture and political activism.
Snoop (Doggy) Dogg Gangsta rapper born in Long Beach, CA, he was a protégé of Andre “Dr. Dre” Young and collaborated on Dr. Dre’s 1992 album The Chronic. Snoop’s soft drawl and laid-back-but-lethal gangster persona were featured on Doggystyle.
Queen Latifah The most important woman in the history of hip-hop, in terms of both her commercial success and her effectiveness in establishing a feminist beachhead on the male-dominated field of rap music.
Dead Kennedys An American punk rock band formed in San Francisco, California in 1978. The band are pioneers of hardcore punk during the 1980s. They gained a large underground fan base in the international punk music scene.
Nirvana American rock band. Established itself as part of the Seattle grunge scene, releasing its first album 'Bleach'
riff A simple, repeating melodic idea or pattern that generates rhythmic momentum.
minstrel show* The first form of musical and theatrical entertainment. Featured mainly white performers who artificially blackened their skin and carried out parodies of African American music, dance, dress, and dialect.
Tin Pan Alley* Nickname for a stretch of 28th Street in New York City where music publishers had their offices—a dense hive of small rooms with pianos where composers and “song pluggers” produced and promoted popular songs. T
ragtime The word derives from the African American term “to rag,” meaning to enliven a piece of music by shifting melodic accents onto the offbeats (a technique known as syncopation). Ragtime music emerged in the 1880s.
phonograph Early device for playing recorded sounds etched on a disc.
social dance A major category or classification of danceforms or dance styles, where sociability and socializing are the primary focuses of the dancing. Social dances can be danced with a variety of partners and still be led and followed in a relaxed, easy atmosphere.
jazz A musical tradition and style of music that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions.
verse A group of lines of poetic text, often rhyming, that usually exhibit regularly recurring metric patterns.
refrain In the verse-refrain song, the refrain is the “main part” of the song, usually constructed in AABA or ABAC form.
bridge The B section of AABA song form found in the refrain of a Tin Pan Alley song. The bridge presents new material: a new melody, chord changes, and lyrics.
standard* American popular songs from the Tin Pan Alley style of songwriting that remain an essential part of the repertoire of today’s jazz musicians and pop singers.
race records* Recordings of performances by African American musicians produced mainly for sale to African American listeners.
blues A genre of music originating principally from the field hollers and work songs of rural blacks in the southern United States during the latter half of the nineteenth century.
Delta blues The folk blues first emerged in the Mississippi Delta.
hillbilly records* It developed mainly out of the folk songs, ballads, and dance music of immigrants from the British Isles. It was later rechristened “country and western music” or simply “country music.”
swing Fluid, rocking rhythmic momentum created by well-played music, the term was used by extension to refer to an emotional state characterized by a sense of freedom, vitality, and enjoyment. Swing is a term used to describe a rhythmic feel used in jazz.
territory bands Bands that traveled and performed throughout the United States during the swing era. The most famous territory bands came from the Southwest, especially Kansas City.
Kansas City swing* Based on use of riffs as principal musical material and with many arrangements frequently not written down.
boogie woogie In boogie-woogie performances, the pianist typically plays a repeated pattern with his left hand, down in the low range of the piano, while improvising polyrhythmic patterns with his right hand.
crooner ?????
urban folk* Style of folk music that grew in popularity in the burgeoning New York folk scene during the 1960s. It included artists such as Bob Dylan.
rhythm & blues Consisted of a loose cluster of styles derived from black musical traditions, characterized by energetic and hard-swinging rhythms.
country & western ????
rock n' roll Introduced as a commercial and marketing term in the mid-1950s for the purpose of identifying a new target audience for musical products. Encompassed a variety of styles and artists from R&B, country, and pop music.
'Blackboard Jungle' A film that showed that rock n' roll would be the social demise of society and would turn well-behaved teens into rebellious people.
payola Illegal practice, common throughout the music industry, of paying bribes to radio disc jockeys to get certain artists’ records played more frequently.
"The Twist" Teen-oriented rock ’n’ roll song using a twelve-bar blues structure; it celebrated a simple, hip-swiveling dance step.
"teenage symphonies" ????
"wall of sound"* The sound achieved by having pianos, guitars, and so forth doubling each individual part in the arrangement, and by using a huge amount of echo.
Motown* Record company founded by Berry Gordy Jr. in Detroit.
'Pet Sounds' The Beach Boys. Recognized as one of the most influential albums in the history of popular music and is widely regarded as one of the best albums of the 1960s, including songs such as "Wouldn't It Be Nice" and "God Only Knows".
British Invasion* Rock n' roll in Britain in '50s that swept the world and included the Beatles and Rolling Stones
'Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band' Album released by the Beatles that had strong influences on other musical genres today.
concept album* Album conceived as an integrated whole, with interrelated songs arranged in a deliberate sequence.
soul African American musical style rooted in R&B and gospel that became popular during the 1960s.
Woodstock A music festival. During the sometimes rainy weekend, thirty-two acts performed outdoors in front of 500,000 concert-goers.It is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most pivotal moments in popular music history.
American folk revival Phenomenon in the United States in the 1950s to mid-1960s. The revival brought forward musical styles that had, in earlier times, contributed to the development of country & western, jazz, and rock and roll music.
'Led Zeppelin IV' No title to the album but become one of the best-selling albums world-wide and was a commercial and critical success.
disco Form of dance music popular in the late 1970s, characterized by elaborate studio production and an insistent beat: Donna Summer, Chic, the Village People, the Bee Gees.
'Saturday Night Fever' The movie that launched the disco rave in the 1970s.
adult contemporary* Extension of the old crooner tradition, with varying degrees of rock influence: Barbra Streisand, Neil Diamond, Roberta Flack, the Carpenters.
"The Outlaws" ????
reggae The heart of reggae music consists of “riddims,” interlocking rhythmic patterns played by the guitar, bass, and drums.
'The Harder They Come' Reggae first became popular in the United States in 1973, after the release of the Jamaican film The Harder They Come and its soundtrack album.
funk Centered on the creation of a strong rhythmic momentum or groove, with the electric bass and bass drum often playing on all four main beats of the measure, the snare drum and other instruments playing equally strongly on the backbeats
'Thriller'* Album by Michael Jackson.In just over a year, Thriller became—and currently remains—the best-selling album of all time. Cemented Jackson's career.
'Born in the USA'* Album by Bruce Springsteen.A popular and commercial triumph, it found Springsteen marking a departure in his sound. While the predecessor, the dark and acoustic Nebraska featured songs of pessimism and isolation.
'Graceland'* Much of the album was recorded in South Africa, and it features many South African musicians and groups. Paul Simon faced accusations that he had broken the cultural boycott imposed by the rest of the world against the apartheid regime in South Africa.
hip-hop Hip-hop culture, forged by African American and Caribbean American youth in New York City, included distinctive styles of visual art (graffiti), dance, music, dress, and speech.
DJ (disc jockeys)Played records and provided entertaining patter on the radio.
MTV Founded in 1981, MTV changed the way the industry operated, rapidly becoming the preferred method for launching a new act or promoting a superstar’s latest release.
punk It was a “back to basics” rebellion against the perceived artifice and pretension of corporate rock music
ragtime The word derives from the African American term “to rag,” meaning to enliven a piece of music by shifting melodic accents onto the offbeats (a technique known as syncopation). Ragtime music emerged in the 1880s.
jazz A musical tradition and style of music that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions.
Tin Pan Alley Nickname for a stretch of 28th Street in New York City where music publishers had their offices—a dense hive of small rooms with pianos where composers and “song pluggers” produced and promoted popular songs. T
blues A genre of music originating principally from the field hollers and work songs of rural blacks in the southern United States during the latter half of the nineteenth century.
country Gained popularity in the 1940s when the earlier term hillbilly music came to be seen as denigrating.
swing Fluid, rocking rhythmic momentum created by well-played music, the term was used by extension to refer to an emotional state characterized by a sense of freedom, vitality, and enjoyment. Swing is a term used to describe a rhythmic feel used in jazz.
western swing A concatenation of country fiddle music, blues, boogie woogie, and swing music. The genre developed in Texas and accordingly reflected that state’s diverse musical traditions.
jump blues Ensembles were smaller than the big bands of the swing era and specialized in hard-swinging, boogie-woogie–based party music, spiced with humorous lyrics and wild stage performances.
bluegrass A style rooted in the venerable southern string band tradition. It combines the banjo, fiddle, mandolin, dobro, guitar, and acoustic bass with a vocal style often dubbed the “high, lonesome sound.”
rock n' roll Introduced as a commercial and marketing term in the mid-1950s for the purpose of identifying a new target audience for musical products. Encompassed a variety of styles and artists from R&B, country, and pop music.
soul African American musical style rooted in R&B and gospel that became popular during the 1960s.
disco Form of dance music popular in the late 1970s, characterized by elaborate studio production and an insistent beat: Donna Summer, Chic, the Village People, the Bee Gees.
hip-hop Hip-hop culture, forged by African American and Caribbean American youth in New York City, included distinctive styles of visual art (graffiti), dance, music, dress, and speech.
rock A genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music.
Created by: 1308000467