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AP US History

Chapter 6 Colonial Crisis 1754-1775

Glossary TermDefinition
Continental Association A mechanism created by the 1st Continental Congress to enforce a boycott against British trade. Local groups monitored & confronted commerce violators.The groups had no formal authority but were accepted as legitimate governmental bodies by many Americans
Coercive Acts Response to the Boston Teaparty. The acts suspended civil govt. in Mass., closed the Boston harbor, allowed royal officials trial in England, & mandated the civilian quartering of British troops.
Daughters of Liberty Female patriots who emerged in the boycotts of British goods. These women showed that women could play a role in the public sphere.
Nonconsumption agreements Boycotts of British goods in response to Townshend duties. These gave women an opportunity to express their political affiliations because they relied on women's willingness to manufacture at home what they had previously purchased readymade.
Townshend duties Taxes on tea, glass, lead, paper and paint levied in 1767. The duties were in the tradition of the Navigation Acts, levying taxes on imported goods. They caused colonial ire because they were intended to raise revenue rather than regulate trade.
Stamp Act Congress Oct 1765, delegates from 9 colonial assemblies came together in the wake of protests against the Stamp Act in hopes of issuing a challenge to parliamentary authority to protest against the concept of virtual representation.
Sons of Liberty A group formed to protest the Stamp Act by Boston shopkeepers and craftsmen under the leadership of Samuel Adams. They defied the Stamp Act by street demonstrations that convinced the Massachusetts stamp distributor to resign.
Sugar Act AKA Revenue Act of 1764, it was an attempt to fund the huge British war debt by regulating smuggling & customs collections. Also lowered the duty on French molasses. It led to ugly confrontations at port cities & annoyed shippers.
Treaty of Paris 1763, an agreement that ended French Indian war: England gained Canada, all of N.America east of the Mississippi. Despite British victory, the French kept the Caribbean islands and English returned Cuba to Spain. Indians land claims were totally ignored.
Albany Plan of Union B. Franklin proposed a plan for uniting the seven colonies that greatly exceeded the scope of the congress. However, after considerable debate, and modifications proposed by Thomas Hutchinson (later Governor of Massachusetts), it was passed unanimously.
Virtual representation Idea that Br. govt represented all Br. subjects, argued that Stamp Act & other colonial taxes didn't constitute taxation w/o representation. Colonists rejected this, saying that political reps held authority only from citizens' consent through elections.
Lexington and Concord The locations of the first fighting of the revolutionary war, which broke out on April 19, 1775.
Currency Act A piece of British legislation that prohibited the printing of paper money in the colonies. This enraged the colonists and was another catalyst to the Revolutionary War.
Virginia Resolves 7 resolutions debated by House of Burgesses(1765) argued that the V. assembly had the sole right to tax Virginians and that taxes originating outside of V. weren't legit. These didn't pass, but were widely reported in news, encouraging further resistance.
Declaratory Act Legislation passed by parlmnt March 1766, just as the Stamp Act was repealed. Stated parlmnt’s right to legislate for colonies “in all cases whatsoeve,” confirming parlmnts authority and showing the colonists that parlmnt upheld the power to tax.
Committees of Correspondence Bodies formed by colonial assemblies in the aftermath of the Gaspee incident to link the colonies and pass on news of British misdeeds. They represented the first effort to create semiofficial links among the American colonial governments.
Lord Dunmore Royal governor of Virginia at start of revolution, he threatened to arm slaves to defend Br. authority. He had no desire to free the slaves and showed the hypocrisy of planter's claims to liberty and their own slaveholding practices.
General Thomas Gage The military governor of Massachusetts who, after the passage of the Coercive Acts, recommended repealing the acts but was ignored by political leaders in England.
Fort Necessity Fort built by Washington/Virginian militia(1754) in the aftermath of a disastrous battle w/French in Ohio valley. French attacked the fort killing/wounding 1/3 of the fort's occupants,forcing Washington to surrender. 1st major battle of French Indian war.
Quartering Act (1765) Colonists required to house Br. troops, not only in commercial and empty buildings but in occupied dwellings as well. The law was bitterly protested, symbolizing as it did to the colonists the potential dangers and abuses of standing armies.
The Paxton Boys A group of Scots-Irish frontiersmen from around central Pennsylvania who formed a vigilante group in response to Pontiac's Rebellion. They felt that the government was negligent in providing them with protection, so took matters into own hands.
Benjamin Franklin Statesman, publisher, inventor, patriot known for writing "Poor Richard's Almanac", kept France on America's side during the Revolutionary War, American representative to England and Minister to France.
Pennsylvania “The best poor white-man's country,” this state was founded by William Penn and was originally a quaker-dominated society.
Atlantic Slave Trade The selling of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. Most slaves were shipped from West Africa and Central Africa and brought over to the New World. Some captured through raids and kidnapping, others traded.
The Great Awakening A religious revitalization that swept the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American religion. It came from powerful preaching that aimed to convince listeners of their personal guilt and of their need of salvation.
Loyalists People who still had ties to Great Britain and remained faithful to their former country, often experiencing discrimination as a result.
Quakers William Penn lead these people to settle in Pennsylvania for religious freedom.
Puritans Non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms in order to purify the Church of England. Founded Massachusetts.
Stono Rebellion In 1739, as many as 100 enslaved African and African Americans living within twenty miles of Charleston joined forces to strike down their white owners and march en masse toward Spanish Florida and freedom. More than 60 whites and 30 slaves died.
Navigation Acts A series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later Great Britain and its colonies). Resentment against such laws was a cause of the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the American Revolutionary War.
Proclamation Act 1763 Passed by England prohibiting colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. One of the main causes of the American Revolution.
The French and Indian War (1754-1763)- a war between England, France, and their Native American allies for control of North America. The English won the war and gained large area of North American from the French. Also called The Seven Years War in Europe.
Pontiac An Indian chief who started an Indian uprising after the French and Indian War. He opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when he was killed.
Intolerable Acts A series of acts passed by the British parliament which ultimately led to the American Revolution. They included the Quebec Act, the Quartering Act, the Stamp Act and the Coercive Act.
Quebec Act Extended Quebec's boundary to Ohio River; guaranteed French language, culture and religion. Americans viewed it as a direct threat to their western expansion. The last intolerable act.
Created by: alfromcanada