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Pathology

Lecture 1-General and NMS Pathology

QuestionAnswer
What is general pathology? Basic reactions of cells and tissues to abnormal stimuli
What is systemic pathology? Specific reactions of specialized organs and tissues
Topics of general pathology cellular rx to injury, cellular changes, cellular adaptation, inflammation, healing and repair, hemodynamic dysfunction, neoplasia, immunopathology, malnutrition, and genetic diseases
Topics of systemic pathology Bones, joints, nervous system, muscles
Pathology broken down.... pathos= suffering
Pathology broken down.... logos= study
pathology means scientific study of disease. Alterations of structure and/or function may result in clinically manifested diseases
pathology provides an understanding of: (5 things) the disease process, the cuases, the mechanisms, the manifestations, the sequelae. Therefore, pathology constitues the scientific basis for proper diagnosis and treatment needed or healthcare providers
histopathology diagnosis of diseases through tissue examination
cytopathology diagnosis of diseases through examination of separated cells
chemical pathology study of diseases regarding biochemical changes in tissue & body fluids
forensic pathology application of pathology to legal purposes
toxicology study of poisons & their effects
hematology study of disorders of blood cells and coagulation proteins
microbiology study of infectious diseases and responsible agents
genetics study of abnormal chromosomes and genes
harmful agent + body's reaction= disease
disease due to variation outside normal range
pathology etiology, clinial picture, pathogenesis, progression
clinical practice diagnosis, prognosis, prevention
Important broad groups of diseases 1.inflammatory (including infections) 2. degenerative (excluding aging) 3. neoplasmic (tumors)
Diagnostic Pathology (4) 1.biopsy 2.cytology 3.blood 4.secretion & excretions
Biopsy (3) 1. needle biopsy (using wide pored cutting needle) 2.incisional biopsy (surgical incision) 3. endoscopic biopsy (visually guided instruments)
cytology examination of scattered cells
fluid cytology e.g. pleural effusion
washing cytology e.g. bronchial washing for lung cancer
fine needle cytology e.g. aspiration of solid tissue as breast mass
exfoliative cytology e.g. scraped or brushed cells from epithelial surfaces as bronchus or cervix
Blood (3) 1. blood cells 2.plasma 3.serum
blood cells e.g. qualitative or quantitative changes
plasma e.g. coagulation disorders
serum e.g. proteins, enzymes, biochemistry
serection & excretions e.g. feces, urine, sputum
The major characteristics applied for study of diseases include: (8) 1. definition 2.incidence:occurence 3. etiology (cause) a. infective agents b.chemical agents c.physical agents d.genetic abnormality 4. pathogenesis 5.clinical features (symptoms & signs) 6.pathological lesion 7.complications 8.prognosis
Pathognomonic abnormality Any abnormality restricted to a single disease of diagnostic importance (e.g Hodgkin's desease)
Syndrome Disease characterized by multiple findings. I.e combinations of lesions, signs, & symptoms (e.g. cushing's disease due to ACTH secreting pituitary tumors)
prognosis forecast of the probable outcome of a disease
regarding etiology: primary disease without evident cause ( e.g. essential hypertension)
regarding etiology: secondary disease secondary to or complication of some underlying cause (e.g. hypertension secondary to renal artery stenosis)
regarding tumors: primary initial site
regarding tumors: secondary tumor cells that disseminate producing secondary lesions in distant sites
acute rapid onset & short course
chronic insidious "gradual" onset a prolonged course
subacute between acute & chronic
benign remain localized, rarely fatal
malignant invade & spread from original site, commonly fatal
hyper- above normal
hypo- below normal
meta- change from one state to another
suffix: -itis inflammation
suffix: -oma swelling, tumor
suffix: -oid resembling
suffix: -plasia disorder of growth
suffix: -osis state, condition, process
suffix: -opathy abnormality lacking specific characteristics
eponyms diseases named after a person or a place (e.g. Hodgkin's disease)
iatrogenic disease disease induced by health care providers words or actions (e.g. penicillin-allergy, asprin-gastric ulcer, radiation-fetal abnormalities, blood transfusion-AIDS, adjustment-fractures)
Created by: squinene