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APUSH terms

The Princeton Review for AP U.S. History

Middle Passage Passage in which Africans were taken onto ships over to the Americas to become slaves
encomiendas grants to settlers that gave authority over Native Americans for the purpose of labor and assimilate into Spanish culture and Catholicism
evangelicalism christianity based on emotionalism and spiritualism
headright system a tract of land, usually 50 acres, that was granted to colonists and potential settlers in order to attract new settlers
indentured servitude were promised seven years' labor for freedom and a small piece of land (voting rights)
joint-stock company in 1607 Jamestown was founded by this, a group of investors who bought the right to establish New World plantations from the king such as the Virginia Company
mercantilism economic power was rooted in a favorable balance of trade (export more than you import)
slavery began in 1619 in the English colonies. They were used due to easy siting and because they were more immune to diseases and did not know land, so they couldn't escape.
salutary neglect the government interfered in colonial affairs as little as possible
proprietary colony colonies converted to royal colonies (their ownership was taken over by the king)
puritanism desire to purify the Anglican church of Roman Catholic practices (Mayflower)
tariffs tax on imported goods that might compete with English goods
bacon's rebellion Virginia 1670s: farmer's want land West of Appalachians, but Berkeley (governor) would not allow them to create tension with Indians
glorious revolution in england William and Mary overthrew James II in 1691. one reason for salem witch trialsin 1692
the great awakening 1730s and 1740s: Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield preached Calvinism and Christianity. Also led to Enlightenment
King Philip's War 1670s: King Philip of the Pokanokets led attacks on several settlements in retaliation for the intrusion on their territory (marks end of Native Americans in England Colonies)
King William's War war against French and Native Americans on the Canadian Border
Pequot War Pequots attacked a settlement in Wakefield and killed nine colonists and members of the Massachusetts Bay Colony retaliated by burning the Pequot village
Salem Witch Trials 1692: 103 people tried and were jailed or executed
the "starving time" John Smith 1609-1610 imposed martial law which helped people survive
Stono Uprising first and most successful slave rebellion in 1739. They stole ammunition and guns and kelled storekeeperrs and planters and fled to florida asking spain for freedom
Anne Hutchinson believed that faith and God's grace suffice to earn one a place among the "elect"
Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment
George Whitefield Great Awakening: spread Christianity
Huguenots French Protestants
John Smith Jamestown, starving time
Jonathan Edwards Great Awakening: spread Calvinism
Pilgrims 1620 landed in Plymouth on the Mayflower
Powhatan Confederacy taught the English what crops to plant and how to plant them
Roger Williams minister in the Salem Bay settlemt who taught a number of controversial principles among them that the church and state should be separate (later banished by Puritans and founded Rhode Island)
Sir Walter Raleigh founded the Lost Colony in 1587
The Chesapeake single males, lives short, lived in small spread out farm communites, slavery, cash crops, diversity, rural
Jamestown 1607 settlement
The lower South cash crops, subsistence farmers, slavery
Massachusetts Bay Colony created by Congregationalists in 1629-1642 (The Great Puritan Migration)
New England families, live longer than Chesapeake, lived in large close towns, more religious than Chesapeake, trade, subsistence farming
Middle Colonies bread colonies, diverse
Act of Toleration 1649: protected most Christians
Dominion of New England an English government attempt to clamp down on illegal trade
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut first written constitution in British North America in 1635
Halfway Covenant 1662: baptize all children whose parents were baptized and those who had not experienced God's grace were not allowed to vote
Mayflower Compact 1620s: created a legal authority and an assembly and asserted that the government's power derives from the consent of the governed and not from God
Navigation Acts 1651-1673: required colonists to buy goods only from England and anything else economic can only be England related
Adam's midnight appointments before he was out of office, he filled up the court with as many federalists as possible
assembly line everyone in the workplace has a different assignment and is in a line doing his own job
freeport doctrine popular sovereignty
frontier thesis the frontier" shaped American character, defined American spirit, fostered democracy, and provided safety valve for economic distress in urban center by providing a play to flee
gospel of wealth Carnegie: philanthropy
horizontal integration created monopoles within a particular industry (standard oil under Rockefller); several small companies within the same industry are combined to form one
interchangeable parts created by Whitney: gave birth to the machine-tool industry (sometime in 1800-1860): led to the assembly line
judicial review marbury v. madison 1803 (during Jefferson's presidency)
lowell system Massachusetts twon in which many mills were located; guaranteed employees housing, cash wages, and participation in cultural an social event organized by the mill (1840s, 1850s)
nativism hatred of foreigners (Know-Nothing Party)
second bank of the united states Jackson vetoed it and felt that it protected NOrtheastern interest at the expense of the West
first bank of the united states Hamilton propsed this in late 1700s to help regulate and strengthen the economy (brought into consideration implied powers and enumerated powers); Madison rechartered it during War of 1812
second party system Jackson's presidency and would consist of the Whigs and Jacksonian Democrats
social darwinism survival of the fittest
spoils system Jackson's presidency: trade jobs for political favors
standard oil company created by John D. Rockefeller (horizontal integration)
trust ...
turner thesis why frontier was so good (4 reasons)
us steel corporation Carnegie?
utopian ...
vertical integration one company buys out all the factors of production, from raw materials to finished product.
war profiteering overcharging the government for services and products
washington's farewell address composed part by Hamilton, stay clear of alliances and stay neutral
"white man's burden" Christianize and Civilize the Filipinos, who were unfit to rule themselves
yellow journalism Pulitzer and Hearst: lurid tales of scandal
Created by: mkurtzweil