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ARH 207 Miderm1

Rasa aesthetic principle of Indian art
Veda (lit: Knowledge) Sanskrit religious texts of the Vedic religion (early phase of Hinduism)
Rig Veda the most important Veda (c. 1300 BC) containing hymns in praise of various Vedic gods
Surya Vedic God of the Sun
Agni Vedic God of the Fire
Upanishad (from the 4th century BC) Sanskrit philosophical texts
Four goals of life • Dharma: religious duty • Artha: ethical pursuit of one’s profession • Kama: familial and sexual/marital love • Moksha: liberation from rebirth
Dharma religious duty (4 goals of life)
Artha ethical pursuit of one’s profession (4 goals of life)
Kama familial and sexual/marital love (4 goals of life)
Moksha liberation from rebirth (4 goals of life)
Pashupati “Lord of Cattle,” epithet of God Shiva
Arya noble
Sanskrit classical language of India. Ancient Indo-European language
Four castes • Priest (brahman or brahmin) • Warrior (kshatriya) • Merchants (vaishya) • Labourers (shudras)
Siddhartha name of the Buddha before the enlightenment
Maya mother of the Buddha
Lumbini place of birth of the Buddha
Sarnath place of the first sermon of Buddha
Bodhi enlightenment.
Bodhi tree tree under which the Buddha attained the enlightenment in Bodhgaya
Dhamma (also Dharma) Buddha’s doctrine
Samgha Buddhist monastic community
Ashoka (272 – 231 BC) Great emperor of the Maurya Dynasty
Pataliputra (today’s Patna in Bihar, India) capital of the Mauryan Empire
Pradakshina Circumambulatory path
Important parts of a stupa • Mound • Vedika: railing • Torana: portal • Harmika: small railing enclosing the parasol on the top of a stupa
Vedika railing (part of stupa)
Torana portal (part of stupa)
Harmika small railing enclosing the parasol on the top of a stupa (part of stupa)
Jataka Tales concerning the previous lives of the Buddha
Brahmi script early script of India used also by Ashoka in his edicts
Kharoshti script early script of India used in the Gandhara region
Kanishka great King of the Kushana Dynasty (c. 50-320 AD)
Iconographic features of the iconic Buddha • Ushnisha: cranial bump • Urna: curl of hair resting between the eyebrows • Halo: sign of divinity • Mudra: position of the hands (like dharma-chakra-mudra)
Ushnisha cranial bump (iconographic feature of iconic Buddha)
Urna curl of hair resting between the eyebrows (iconographic feature of iconic Buddha)
Halo sign of divinity (iconographic feature of iconic Buddha)
Mudra position of the hands (like dharma-chakra-mudra) (iconographic feature of iconic Buddha)
Bodhisattva compassionate being on the threshold of enlightenment
Yakshi semi-divine female figure associated with fertility
Dharmachakra wheel (chakra) of Buddhist law (dharma)
Chaitya apsidal Buddhist chapel
Vihara Monastic residential hall for Buddhist monks
Mithuna loving couple
Shivalinga aniconic or unmanifest representation of Shiva as a phallic symbol or linga
Shiva Ardhanarishvara Shiva represented as half woman and half man
Bull Nand Shiva’s vehicle
Mount Kailasa Himalaya Mountain’s peak considered the abode of God Shiva
Ravana ten-headed and twenty-armed demon of the Ramayana (Hindu Epic)
Puranas (ancient writings): Sanskrit religious texts of Hinduism containing myths of various gods
Two great Sanskrit Epics of India • Mahabharata: with a section called the Bhagavadgita • Ramayana: adventures of God Rama
Mahabharata with a section called the Bhagavadgita (great Sanskrit of India)
Ramayana adventures of God Rama (great Sanskrit of India)
Vaishnavism or Vaishnava tradition cults related to god Vishnu and his avataras or incarnations (Rama, Krishna, Varaha or boar incarnation, Nara-simha or man-lion)
Shaivism or Shaiva tradition cults related to god Shiva
Shaktism or Shakta tradition cults related to the goddess (Shakti or Devi) in all her aspects (Kali, Lakshmi, Durga, Parvati)
Darshan viewing the image of a god
Puja worship
Garuda Mount or vehicle of Vishnu
Garbha-grha womb house, sanctum of Hindu temple
Mandapa pavilion of Hindu temple
Nagara temple North Indian temple • Shikhara: roof of north Indian temple • Amalaka: crowning element of shikhara
Shikhara roof of north Indian temple (Nagara Temple)
Amalaka crowning element of shikhara (Nagara Temple)
Dravida temple South Indian temple with pyramidal roof named Vimana
Vimana pyramidal roof of the South Indian temple
Vastu Purusha Mandala Mystic diagram and geometric map of the cosmos used in Hindu temple architecture
Mahavira founder of Jainism. Mahavira was also called Jina or “Victorious” after attaining the enlightenment
Kalpasutra Jaina/Jain text narrating the lives of the Jinas
Important Dynasties Shunga Dynasty: 2nd-1st century BC Satavahana Dynasty: 2nd-1st century BC – 4th AD Kushana Dynasty: c. 50-320 AD Vakataka Dynasty: 4th-5th century AD Gupta Dynasty: c. 320-647 AD
Shunga Dynasty 2nd-1st century BC
Satavahana Dynasty 2nd-1st century BC – 4th AD
Kushana Dynasty c. 50-320 AD
Vakataka Dynasty 4th-5th century AD
Gupta Dynasty c. 320-647 AD
Created by: elenatraudt
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