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APES Test 9

Land and Water Use

this type of agriculture is a system of land use in which harvestable trees or shrubs are grown among or around crops as a means of presesrving or enhancing the productivity of land agroforestry
this type of agriculture is a method of planting crops in strips with rows of trees on each side; increases biodiversity, improves utilization of nutrients, reduces wind erosion, and improves wildlife habitat alley cropping
this type of agriculture is planting a field with different crops from year to year to reduce soil nutrients depletion crop rotation
this type of agriculture includes the use of mechanized equipment, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides high-input agriculture
this form of agriculture is a system characterized by mechanization, monocultures, and the use of synthetic inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides; emphasis on maximizing productivity and profitability industrial agriculture or corporate farming
this form of agriculture is to grow more than one crop in the same field, especially in alternating rows or sections intercropping
this form of agriculture is growing two different crops in an area at the same time; plants should have similar nutrient and moisture requirements interplanting
this form of agriculture depends on hand tools and natural fertilizers; lacks large scale irrigation low input
this form of agriculture is when soil is distributed little or not at all to reduce soil erosions; has lower labor costs, reduces the need for fertlizer, and saves energy low-till, no-till, or conservation-till agriculture
this form of agriculture is the cultivation of a single crop monoculture
this form of agriculture relies on crop rotation, green manure, compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and control pests organic farming
this form of agriculture is a commercial tropical agriculture system that is essentially export oriented; include modifications or disturbance of the natural landscape through artificial practices as the permanent removal of natural vegetation plantation
this form of agriculture uses different crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoids large stands of a single crop; includes crop rotation, multicropping, intercropping, and alley cropping polyculture
this form of agriculture is planting a plot of land with several varieties of the same crop polyvarietal cultivation
this form of agriculture is carried out for survival, with no or few crops available for sale; usually organic and simply for lack of money to buy industrial inputs such as fertilzer and pesticides subsistence
this form of agriculture is a conventional method in which the surface is plowed which then breaks up and exposes the soil and is followed by smoothing the surface and planting; exposes the land to water and wind erosion tillage
this is a time that involved planting monocultures, using high applications of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, and the widespread use of artifical irrigation systems first green revolution
this time involves growing genetically engineered crops that produce the most yields per acre second green revolution
criticisms of the green revolution unsustainable, increasing food production is not same with increasing food security, produces monoculture of cereal grains, drop in productivity of land, caused smaller farm to go into debt, increased use of pesticides, salinization, reduced biodiversity
this involves moving genes from one species to another or designing gene sequences with desireable characteristics genetic engineering
pros of genetically engineered crops less water and fertilizer, higher crop yields, less spoilage, faster growth, more resistant to disease, grow in saltier soils
cons of genetically engineered crops unknown ecological effects, less biodiversity, may harm beneficial insects, pay pose allergen risk, may result in mutations with unknown consequences, may cause pesticide-resistant strains
why is sustainable irrigation limited? increases in costs, depletion of current sources of water, competition for water by urban areas, restoration of wetlands and fisheries, waterlogging, and salinization
three main goals of sustainable irrigation environmental health, economic profitability, and social and economic equity
what is a sustainable use of inputs reliance on natural, renewable farm inputs with goal to develop effecient, biological systems that do not need high levels of material inputs
four principles that can be applied to help growers select appopriate management practices effecient use of inputs; selection of site, species, and variety; soil management; species diversity
name different types of pesticides biological, carbamates, chlorinated hyrdocarbons, fumigants, inorganic, organic/natural, and organophosphates
this pesticides is living organisms that are used to control pests biological
this pesticide affects the nervous system of pests carbamates
this pesticide is synthetic organic compounds that affect the nervous system of pests; highly resistant to decomposition; CFC's chlorinated hydrocarbons
this pesticide is used to sterilize soil and prevent pest infestation of stored grain fumigants
this pesticide is a broad-based pesticide that includes arsenic, copper, lead, and mercury; highly toxic and accumulate in the environment inorganic
this pesticide is natural poisons derived from plants such as tobacco organic or natural
this pesticides is extremely toxic but remains in the environment for only a brief time organophosphates
pros of pesticide use kill unwanted pests, increase food supplies, more food means food is less expensive, newer pesticides are safer and more specific, reduces labor cost, agriculture is more profitable
cons of pesticide use accumulates in food chains, develop resistance and create pesticide treadmill, runoff and effect through biomagnification, inefficient, threatens endangered species and pollinators
this is an ecological pest control strategy that uses a variety of methods Integrate Pest Management (IPM)
methods used in Integrated Pest Management polyculture, intercropping, planting pest-repellant crops, using mulch, natural insect predators, rotating crops, releasing sterilized insects, developing Genetically modified crops
what are the ecological services of trees? wildlife habitats, carbon sinks, affecting local climate patterns, purifying air and water, reducing soil erosion, and providing energy and nutrient cycling
these are large, managed commercial or government-owned farms with uniformly aged trees of one species; typically for pulp and lumber tree plantations
these are forests that have not been seriously impacted by human activities for hundreds of years; they are rich in biodiversity old-growth forests
characteristics of old-growth forests older and mixed-aged trees; minimal signs of human activity; decaying wood and ground layer; dead trees; healthy soil profiles; indicator species; and a fungal ecosystem
reasons for increase in forest fires longer, warmer summers; early arrivals of spring snowmelt in mountainous regions; change in fire management philosophy (they are allowed to burn if natural and not threatening resources)
this type of fire occurs in forests that have not had surface fires for a long time; burn entire trees and leap from treetop to treetop crown fires
this type of fire occurs underground and burns partially decayed leaves; common in peat bogs; difficult to detect and extinguish ground fires
this type of fire burns undergrowth and leaf litter; kills seedlings and small trees; allows many wild animals to escape; allow vegetation to grow in clearing that provide food surface fires
two major methods to control fire prevention and prescribed burning
this method of controlling fire involves burning permits, closing parts of the forest during times of the year when number of visitors is high and during periods of drought prevention
this method of controlling fire involves purposely setting controlled surface fires and setting small, prescribed fires to thin out underbrush in high-risk area prescribed burning
this is the conversion of forested areas to nonforested areas deforestation
this method to manage and harvest trees is essentially the practice of tree plantations even-age management
this method to manage and harvest trees is to maintain a stand with trees of all ages from seedling to mature uneven-age management
this method to manage and harvest trees is specific trees in an area are chosen and cut selective cutting
this method to manage and harvest trees is to remove all mature trees in an area within a limited time shelterwood cutting
this method to manage and harvest trees is cutting and removing only the largest and best trees high grading
this method to manage and harvest trees is when a majority of trees are removed except for scattered, seed-producing trees used to regenerate a new stand seed tree cutting
this method to manage and harvest trees is when all of the trees in an area are cut at the same time; this technique is sometimes used to cultivate shade-intolerant tree species clear-cutting
this method of managing and harvesting trees is clear-cutting a strip of trees that follows the land contour; the corridor is allowed to regenerate strip cutting
what are the three schools of thoughts with regards to the causes of deforestation impoverished school, neoclassical school, and political-ecology school
this school of thought on causes of deforestation believes that the major cauase is the growing number of poor people impoverished school
this school of thought on the cause of deforestation believes that the major cause is "open-access property rights" neoclassical school
this school of thought on the causes of deforestation believes that the major cause of deforestation is due to entrepreneurs political-ecology school
what does the Forest Service do? protects and manages natural resources; sponsors research on aspects of forestry, rangeland management, and forest resource utilization; provides community cooperation with state and local government; provides international assistance in making policy
this occurs when plants are exposed to grazing for too long without sufficient recovery periods overgrazing
this is the conversion of marginal rangeland or cropland to a more desert-like land type desertification
what causes desertification overgrazing, soil erosion, prolonged drought, or climate changes
process of desertification 1.overgrazing 2. rain washes away soil 3. well and other water sources dry up 4.vegetation dies from drought 5.weeds take over 6. wind and dry heat blow away topsoil
the purposes of rangelands habitat for animal species; habitat for native plant species; source of high-quality water, clean air, and open spaces; setting for recreation; foundation for low-input, fully renewable food production systems
jurisdiction of public grazing rangelands is coordinated through this.. Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
8 different methods of rangeland management 1.controlling number of livestock 2.restoring degraded rangeland 3.moving livestock 4.fencing off stream areas 5.supressing growth of invasive plants 6. replanting barren rangeland 7. provide feed 8. locate water holes
this refers to the movement of people from rural areas to cities and the changes that accompany it urbanization
efficient and well-maintained federal highway system can have the following impacts on the environment less pollutants, reduce greenhouse gases, improve fuel economy and reduce foreign oil dependance, improve the economy, and improve the quality of life
this is a narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water channel (strait)
Created by: kp1793
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