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APES Test 4

The Atmosphere

seven primary compounds of earth's atmosphere nitrogen (78%), Oxygen(21%), water vapor (0-4%), carbon dioxide (<1%), methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone
this describes whatever is happening outdoors in a given time; what happens minute to minute weather
this describes the total of all weather occuring over a period of years in a given place; inlcudes average weather conditions, regular weather sequences, and special weather events climate
layers of the atmosphere from bottom to top troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere
weather occurs in this zone, 75% of atmosphere's mass is in this sphere, 0-7 miles above the surface troposphere
contains the ozone layer, temperature increases with altitude statosphere
coldest layer, temperature decreases with altitude, meteors burn up in this layer mesosphere
molecules converted to ions which result in aurora borealis and aurora australis; increases temperature with height due to gamma rays, x-rays and UV radiation thermosphere (ionosphere)
three ways energy can be transfered through radiation, convection, and conduction
weather affects these physical properties temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipatation, available sunshine determined by cloud cover, wind speed, and wind direction
this is the flow of electromagnetic radiation radiation
this is transfered by the collisions that take place between heat-carrying molecules conduction
this is the primary way energy is transferred from hotter to colder regions in earth's atmosphere and is the primary determinant of weather patterns convetion
different factors that influence climate air mass, air pressure, altitude, clouds, distance to ocean, latitude, location, pollution, mountains, or wind patterns and human activities
a large body of air that has similar temperatures and moisture content air mass
what do low and high air pressures mean? low air pressure usually produces stormy weather and high air pressures is associated with fair weather
this is the reflectivity of a surface to solar radiation that affects climate albedo
T or F: for every 1,000 feet rise in elevation, there is a 3 degree drop in temperature True
collections of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere clouds
this type of cloud can cause lightning, thunder, hail, strong rains, strong winds, and tornadoes cumulo-nimbus
this cloud type is thin, wispy, appears in sheets; located above cumulo-nimbus cirro-stratus
this is thin, wispy, filamentous, or curly; composed of ice crystal cirrus
this type of cloud is small, puffy, patchy and wave-like alto-cumulus
this type of cloud is thin and uniform alto-stratus
this type of cloud is broad and flat on the bottom, puffy on top strato-cumulus
this type of cloud is puffy and piled up cumulus
this type of cloud is uniform, flat, thick to thin layered clouds, mostly composed of liquid droplets stratus
this type of cloud is uniform, dark, flat, low, featureless that produce precipitation nimbo-stratus
this type of cloud is very low and mostly composed of liquid droplets fog
pressure differences gradients
how wind pattern occur sun heats atmosphere unevenly, air closest to surface is warmer and rises, air at high elevations is cooler and sinks, rising and falling sets up convection processes and causes winds
these winds develop in hilly or mountainous areas during the daytime anabatic winds
these winds occur on otherwise clear, still nights when the air that is in contact with the ground loses heat rapidly by radiation back to space katabatic winds
wind speed is measure with what? anemommeter
wind direction is measure with what? wind vane
the effect with wind is how the earth's rotation on its axis causes winds not to travel straight Coriolis Effect
three types of air circulation cells associated with latitude are Hadley, Ferrel, and polar
T or F: the close pressure contours (isobars) are on a map, the stronger the wind True
these circulation cell areas are characterized by high humidity, high clouds, and heavy rains; there is no winter, vegetation is tropical rain forest Hadley Air circulation cells
the areas of the earth controlled by these circulation cells are broad-leaf deciduous and coniferous evergreen forests; defind seasons, and strong annual cycles of temperature and precipitation ferrel air circulation cells
T or F: deserts are defined by moisture not temperature True
climates in this circulation cell are low temperatures, severe winters, and small amounts of precipitation, short summers polar air circulation cells
two major biomes in the polar air circulation cells tundra and taiga
what is the most severe weather phenomenon on the planet hurricanes
this results from the increase in height of the ocean near the eye of a hurrican and can cause extensive flooding storm surge
stages of a hurrican development 1. separate thunderstorms develop over tropical oceans and cyclonic circulation begins to cause circular motion of storm 2.picks up moisture and latent heat energy from ocean dissipates as it travles over land or moves to cooler waters
swirling masses of air with wind speeds close to 300 miles per hour tornadoes
this hurrican hit New Orleans, Louisiana in 2005 Hurricane Katrina
the center of the tornado is an area of ______ pressure like in a hurricane low
these occur during late December along the west coast of south america; air pressure drops along the coast and in west pacific high pressure areas develop El Nino southern Oscillations (ENSO)
this causes normal trade winds to be reduced, causing warmer ocean waters off the coast of South america and prevents nutrient-rich cold-water upwellings and thus extensive fish kills El Nino Southern Osciallations (ENSO)
when does the El Nino Southern Oscillations occur? late december
where does the El Nino Southern Oscillations occur? along the west coast of south america
what are the climatological effects of El Nino winter storms in the south north america, increased precipitation on the west coast of south ameirca, drought on the east coast of south america, drought in africa and europe, hurricanes in the pacific ocean, and warmer winters in north north america
this is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific La Nina
what are the effects of El Nina compared to the effects of El Nino on the U.S.? they are the opposite effects
what are the climatological effects of El Nina wetter conditions across the pacific northwest and dryer and warmer conditions in the southern states. warmer winters in SE U.S and increase in hurricanes and heavy monsoons in India and SE Asia
are El Nino and EL Nina common on the APES exam???? YESSSSSSSS!
what results in El Nino and El Nina? atmosphere-ocean interactions
Created by: kp1793
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