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How USA continued to implement containment from 1960 to end of Cold War

Berlin Wall Beginning On August 13, 1961, the East German government, complying with directives from Moscow, constructed a wall between East and West Berlin.
Berlin Wall Result Once it became clear in November 1989 that the East German government was no longer defending the wall that had divided Berlin for nearly thirty years, Germans on both sides of the divide swarmed over it in celebration.
Containment American foreign policy: containing communism. United States and its allies would work to “contain” the threat of further Soviet expansion.
Containment - Truman Doctrine Truman appeared before Congress on March 12, 1947 and used Kennan’s warnings as the basis of what became known as the Truman Doctrine. Idea that communism will self-destruct when contained.
Cuban Missile Crisis Beginning (October 1962). Serious problem: SAM missile site found. Similar to Soviet Union, may be nuclear missiles. Americans begin low level flights and find missiles in Cuba.
America's reaction to cuban missile crisis diplomat says talk, military says to bomb. CIA’s (wrong) assumption: while missiles are in Cuba, warheads are not. Form a “blockade” around Cuba (quarantine), and search incoming/outgoing ships for warheads.
Soviet's reaction (Cuban Missile Crisis) Soviet convoy heading towards quarantine line (Cuba. First response – omg, we’ll back off, second response – cold reply, we’re coming, Americans threaten again not to enter, case of game of chicken. In the end, ship stops and returns to Soviet Union.
Cuban Missile Crisis result In the end, ship stops and returns to Soviet Union. Work out deal: USA promised to never invade Cuba and pulls missiles out of India, USSR pulls missiles out of Cuba and install direct phone line from White House to USSR.
Detente An effort by the Nixon administration to improve relations with the Soviet Union, an initiative known by the French word détente.
Gorbachev - man Mikhail Gorbachev succeeded to the leadership of the Soviet Union in 1985 and, to the surprise of almost everyone (probably including himself), very quickly became the most revolutionary figure in world politics in at least four decades.
Gorbachev - politics Gorbachev quickly transformed Soviet politics with two dramatic new initiatives: openness and reform. Also began to transform Soviet foreign policy. As early as 1987, he began reducing Soviet influence in Eastern Europe.
Gorbachev - results Gorbachev resigned as leader of powerless Communist Party and Soviet government, and the Soviet Union ceased to exist. In 1988, both Reagan and Gorbachev signed a treaty eliminating American and Soviet intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) from Europe
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964. . Incident of shooting between Americans and North Vietnamese. LBJ makes incident big and asks Congress: we need to “Take all necessary measures” to protect South Vietnam – asks Congress for blank check.
Henry Kissinger Kissinger quickly established dominance over Secretary of State William Rogers and Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird. Nixon and Kissinger set out to find an acceptable solution to the stalemate in Vietnam. Tried Vietnamization.
Henry Kissinger - Secretary of State In ’69, Nixon and Kissinger decided to destroy the bases in Cambodia and Laos from which, the American military believed, the North Vietnamese were launching many of their attacks.
Kissinger - peace In ’71, Kissinger was sent on a secret mission to Beijing. This began new relationship with the Chinese communists. In 1972, Kissinger met North Vietnamese foreign secretary , Le Duc Tho, and negotiated for a cease-fire.
Iran-Contra (Iran part) November 1986, White House conceded it had sold weapons to the revolutionary government of Iran as part of a largely unsuccessful effort to secure the release of several Americans being held hostage by radical Islamic groups in the Middle East.
Iran-Contra (Contra part) More damaging: some money from the arms deal had been covertly and illegally funneled into a fund to aid the contras in Nicaragua.
Iran-Contra: result The Iran-contra scandal did serious damage to the Reagan presidency – even though the investigations were never able to decisively tie the president himself to the most serious violations of the law.
Joseph McCarthy McCarthy was ruining people’s lives by falsely accusing them of being a Communist. He never proves that ANYONE is a communist, yet he became the most feared man in the country.
Joseph McCarthy: result Within 2 weeks of failing to one particular man, there was opposition against McCarthy everywhere.
NATO: who North Atlantic Treaty Organization established April 4, 1949. Military alliance between 12 Western Europe nations.
NATO: what The NATO countries would maintain a standing military force in Europe to defend against what many believed was the threat of a Soviet invasion.
NATO: result The formation of NATO eventually spurred the Soviet Union to create an alliance of its own with the communist governments in Eastern Europe, as formalized in 1955 by the Warsaw Pact.
Nixon Doctrine In 1969/1970. The U.S. would “participate in the defense and development of allies and friends” but would leave the “basic responsibility” for the future of those “friends” to the nations themselves.
Purpose of Nixon Doctrine Less American interest in contributing to Third World development; a growing contempt for UN, and increasing support to authoritarian regimes attempting to withstand radical challenges from within.
Reagan Doctrine Creation of new policy, which became known as the Reagan Doctrine, helped groups resist communism in the Third World.
Reagan Doctrine example Administration provided increased military and economic assistance to El Salvadorian government who was fighting left-wing revolutionaries. In Nicaragua, the Reagan administration supported the so-called contras, fighting to topple the Sandinista regime.
Vietnamization An effort to train and equip the South Vietnamese military to assume the burden of combat in place of American forces. In ’69, Nixon announced withdrawal of troops.
Vietnamization: results Helped quiet domestic opposition to the war for a time. It did nothing, however, to break the stalemate in the negotiations with the North Vietnamese in Paris. The new administration decided that new military pressures would be necessary to do that.
Tet Offensive (January 1968). Despite losses and number of troops overseas, war was almost over, as reported by Americans. Vietnam forces attacked every single American base in South Vietnam at once in December.
Tet Offensive: results Military not defeated but set back. Begin doubting why at war, when we’re leaving, and how. Vietnam War Protestors (young citizens) happening nightly.
Vietnam War: broad topics Background, Entry into Vietnam, The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Escalation, The Anti-War Movement, Tet, 1968 Election, Nixon and Vietnam, End Game
Created by: lbell000