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_____ _____ determines the liklihood of structural collapse under fire conditions. pg. 45 Fire Resistance
The _______ _______ of a building's structural system will impact the rate of fire growth. pg. 45 Combustible Nature
What are the two attributes of building construction? pg. 45 Fire Resistance and Combustibility
Building construction and occupancy classifications are used in the building codes to establish limits on what? pg. 46 Permissible heights and areas of buildings.
_____ ______ is the ability of a structural assembly to maintain its load-bearing capacity and structural integrity under fire conditions. pg. 46 Fire Resistance
What is the most commonly used method of determining fire resistance? pg. 47 Laboratory test
This type of construction has structural members that are of non-combustible construction that has specified fire resistance. pg. 55 Type I
Type I construction generally has bearing walls, columns, and beams that have a fire resistance of _____ to _____ hours. pg. 55 2 to 4 hrs.
In Type I: Floor construction is required to have a resistance of ______ or ______ hours. pg. 55 2 or 3 hrs.
Type I: The roof deck and construction supporting the roof must have a fire resistance of _____ to _____ hours. pg. 55 1 to 2 hrs.
Type I: ________ specifies the fire resistance of interior partitions enclosing stairwells and corridors. pg. 55 Local code- usually one or two hours.
Type I: Some building codes contain a provision to omit the fire resistive rating for a roof construction for some occupancies when the roof is located more than ____ ft. above the floor. pg. 55 20 ft.
Type I: This will contribute most of the fuel for a fire. pg. 57 The Contents
What are the two most common methods of constructing Type I buildings? pg.57 Reinforeced Concrete & Protected Steel Frame
This type of construction can be protected or unprotected. pg. 58 Type II
The use of _______________ is the most common characteristic of unprotected, noncombustible construction. pg. 58 Unprotected Steel
What aret the two sub-classifications of Type II construction? pg.58 II-A & II-B
In Type II-A construction the structural components are required to have ____ hour fire resistance. pg.58 1 hour
In Type II-B construction, structural components are required to have _______ hours of fire resistance. pg.58 Unprotected
(TYPE II) The point at which unprotected members will fail depends on three factors: pg. 58 1. Ceiling height of the building 2. Size of unprotected steel members 3. Intensity ansd duration of the exposing fire.
Type III construction's exterior walls are frequently constructed with what? pg. 58 Masonry
(TYPE III) What structural members are permitted to be partially or who;;y combustible? pg. 58 Interior: including walls, columns, beams, floors, and roofs
Type IIIA subclassification has a ____ hour fire resistive rating for interior members. pg 59 One
What is the fire resistance requirements for interior members of Type IIIB? pg. 59 It has NO requirements
What is the fundemental fire concern with Type III construction? pg.59 Combustible concealed spaces
What type of ceiling can facilitate hiden fires and make it difficult for FF's to find the seat of a fire. pg.60 Dropped Ceilings
____________ is created between floor and ceiling joists and between studs in partition walls when they are covered with interior finish material? pg. 59 Combustible concealed spaces
What is the primary hazard associated with type IV construction? pg.61 Massive amount of fuel presented by large structural members.
many Type V structures are required to have a _________ fire resistance for the structural members. pg. 61 1 hour
A fundemental problem posed by Type V construction is the creation of ______________. pg.62 Combustable concealed voids & channels
What is refered to as "the common currency of small residential & commercial buildings in North America today?" pg. 62 Light Frame Construction
This situation may be found where a different type of __________ is built on top of an exsisting one. pg. 62 Mixed Construction
_________ & ________ refer to the maximum amount of heat that would be released if all the available fuel in a building was consumed. pg. 63 Fire Load or Fuel Load
Ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, and similar materials have heats of combustion between ___________ BTU's per pound. pg. 63 7-8000 BTU's
The Internantional Building Code contains ten major occupancy classifications: What type of occupancy does each letter represent? A,B,E,F,H,I,M,R,S, & U: pg. 64 Assembly, Business, Educational, Factories, High Hazard, Institutional, Mercantile, Residential, Storage, Utility-Miscellaneous
What are the IBC subclassifications for Residential occupancies? pg. 64 R1 thru R4
What are the IBC subclassifications for Assembly Occupanies? pg. 64 A1 thru A5
Which IBC residential subclassification has primarily permanant residents and more than two dwellings such as non transient hotels? pg. 64 R2
Which IBC Assembly subclassification is used for worship, recreation, or amusement? pg.65 A3
Which IBC Assembly subclassification is used for bleachers, grandstands, and stadiums? pg. 65 A5
Which IBC Residential subclassification has primarily transient occupants? gp. 64 R1
Which IBC Residential subclassification has occupancies used as assisted living facilities with 5-16 occupants? pg. 65 R4
Which IBC Assembly subclassification is intended for viewing indoor sports events with tennis courts and arenas? pg. 65 A4
Which IBC Assembly classification is used for night clubs and restaurants? pg. 65 A2
Which IBC Assembly subclassification has fixed seating? pg. 65 A1
Which IBC Residential subclassification has adult and child care facilities? pg. 65 R3
What is the most critical aspect of engineering design? pg. 71 Determinig the typre and magnitude of the forces to which the structure will be subjected.
What creates a force on the building through the weight of the building components and all of it's contents? pg. 72 Gravity
A _______ is defined as any effect (or force) that a structure must resist. pg. 72 Load
When the wind exerts this type of force on a building the force may be reduced by streamlining the surface encountered. pg. 73 Direct Pressure
When the winds fluid nature causes it to flow around an object, what type of force is exerted on a building? pg. 73 Aerodynamic Drag
The tendency of wind to dislodge objects from a building is called:_________ pg. 73 clean off effect
A back-and-forth effect due to variationsin the velocity of wind is called __________. pg.73 Rocking effects
This type of wind force depends on the velocity of the wind and the harmonic characteristics of the surface: pg. 73 Vibration
This type of wind force is produced on the downward side of the building resulting in an outward pressure: pg.73 Negative pressure
__________ are some of the most complex forces exerted on a building. pg. 75 Seismic Forces
Although the movement of the ground beneath a building can be three dimensional, the _______ motion is the most significant force. pg. 77 Horizontal
During an earthquake, what tends to keep the upper portion of a building momentarily in its initial position? pg. 77 Inertia
What type of building is inherently more susceptible to damage form earthquakes? pg. 77 Buildings with Geometric irregularities
To overcome the difference in response between buildings with dissimilar parts __________ can be designed into the structure between the junctions of their two parts. pg. 78 seismic Joint
The pressure exerted by the soil against the foundatiionn is known as the ______________ pg. 79 Active soil pressure
The force of foundation against the soil is known as the ___________ pg. 79 Passive soil pressure
the basic concept of __________ is to isolate the building from the horizontal movement through the earths surface. pg. 79 Base isolation
________ operateon a principle similar to the manner in which a door closer controls the speed of a door. pg. 79 Damping mechanism
__________are typically installed at the connections between columns and beams and absorb energy as the structure begins to move. pg. 79 Damping Mechanisms
__________ change the fundemental vibration frequency of a building. pg. 79 Elastommeric Bearings
These systems isolate the building form the horizonal shear force created by an earthquake. pg. 79 Sliding Systems
A __________ is the weight of any permanent part of a building. pg. 81 Dead Load
The _________ load represented by the weight of a roof can increase overtime when additional layers are added in the course of resurfacing. pg. 81 Dead Load
This term is usually applied to building contents accupants and the weight of snow or rain on the roof. pg. 82 Live Load
________ loads produce high localized forces and nonuniform loads in the supporting structural members. pg. 82 Concentrated Loads
A ________ load can vary from virtually nothing to 60 pounds per square foot. pg. 83 Snow Load
Are capable of delivering energy to a structure in addition to the weight of an object. pg.84 Dynamic
Water from fire fighting operations can add an additional ________ load. pg. 84 Live
3 inches of water will impose a load of ______ ponds per square foot. pg. 84 20.8 lbs
_________loads are loads that are steady or are applied gradually. pg. 84 Static
The dead load of a building, the snow load, and many live loads are considered __________ loads. pg. 84 Static
The impact of falling contents ans structural members subjects other portions of a building to impact, resulting in ___________. pg. 85 Progressive Failure
________ loads have the ability to cause failure after repeated cycles. pg. 85 Dynamic
When the support provided by a structural system is equal to the applied loads, a condition known as ________ exists. pg. 85 Equillibrium
Yield point stress is also known as: pg. 88 Failure Point
A(n)____________ load ia a load applied to the center of the cross-section of a structural member and perpendicular to that cross section. pg. 88 Axial
A(n) ___________ load is a load that is perdendicular to the cross section of the structural member but does not pass through the center of the cross section. pg. 89 Eccentric
A(n) __________ load is offset from the center of the cross section of the structural member and at an angle to or in the same plane as the cross section. pg. 89 Torsional
A(n) ___________ load creates stresses that vary across the cross section and may be both tensile and compressive. pg. 89 Eccentric
A(n) __________ load produces a twisting effect that creates shear stresses in a material. pg. 89 Torsional
A ___________ is a structural member that can carry loads perpendicular to its longitudinal dimension. pg. 90 Beam
Where are the maximum tension or compression stresses located on a beam? pg. 91 Top & Bottom
These structural members are designed to support an axial compressive load: pg. 93 Columns
A structural member in which the interior stresses are primarily compressive: pg. 93 Arch
__________ produce inclined forces at their end supports, which the support must resist. pg. 93 Arch
__________ have have application as support for roofs and entrances in masonry buildings. pg. 93 Arches
To prevent bending stresses and provide for minor adjustments arches are sometimes designed with _________. pg. 94 Hinges
What shape will a cable assume if it is used to support loads over a distance? pg. 94 Parabola
A framed structural unit made up of a group of triangles in one plane, and consisting of only staight members: pg. 95 A true truss
What type of truss is unavoidably subjected to bending forces? pg. 95 Bowstring
Failure of any portion of the top or bottom chord of a truss will result in: pg. 97 Failure of the truss
__________ are truss structures that are developed in three dimensions. pg.97 Space frames
__________ are well suited to support uniformly distrbuted loads. pg. 97 Space frames
How is a steel stud wall frequently stabilized? pg.98 With diagonal bracing
Post aand beam construction requires the addition of other memebers such as diagonal braces to withstand ___________. pg. 100 Lateral Loads
The last portion of a rigid frame construction assembly to fail under fire conditions will be? pg. 100 The Joints
____________ typically address membrane structures to be used for 180 days or more. pg. 101 Building codes
____________ tyypically address membrane structures to be used for less than 180 days. pg 101 Fire Codes
What type of structures lend themselves to regular geometric shapes such as cones, domes, barrel vaults, and folded plates? pg. 102 Shell structures
The degre to which fire can spread over the surface of a material is technically refered to as the _________________ of the material. pg. 154 Surface burning characteristics
The manner in which an interior finish is __________ can greatly affect the material's burning characteristics. pg. 155 Mounted
Classification of interior finishes are used to restrict the materials in ___________ exits and exit corridors to those with low flame spreads. pg. 155 Vertical
The ________ of a fire is determined by the fire load plus the rate at which the fuel burns. pg. 156 Severity
A numerical evaluation of the flammibility of interior materials is known as the ___________. pg. 156 Flame spread rating
When can a fire retardent coating increase the fire resistance of structural componentsor assemblies? pg. 159 If it has also been tested & listed for use in a fire-resistive assembly
Not every wall or partition in a building is fire rated. However assemblies that have a fire resistive rating have the advantage of what? pg. 162 Providing a known level of protection
Active or passive fire protection? Systems that require a power source for operation: pg. 161 Active
Active or Passive fire protection? Exstinguishes or controls a fire: pg. 161 Active
Active or Passive fire protection? Limits the spread of fire: pg. 161 Passive
Active or passive fire protection? Relies on building construction or materials to contain fire: pg. 161 Passive
The subdivision of a building or the floor levels of a building by fire rated walls or partitions is generally referred to as: pg. 162 Compartmentation
Fire rated partitions can provide areas of refuge for occupants. This concept of providing an area of refuge is referred to as: pg. 162 Defending-in-place, or Sheltering-in-place
When a section of a building becomes heavily involved _________ is a natural line along which to establish a defense. pg. 164 The Fire Wall
Freestanding walls must be designed to resist a lateral load of at least ______lbs. per sq ft. pg. 164 5lbs. per sq. ft.
_________ are erected at a column line in a building of steel-frame or concrete frame construction. pg. 165 tied fire walls
The IBC permits combustible structural members to be framed into a masonry or concrete fire wall from opposite sides provided there is a _________ seperation between the ends of the structural members. pg. 165 4 inch
The parapet height of a firewall above a combustible roof is determined by _________. pg. 165 The building code
Some codes contain exceptions that permit the elimination of parapets. An example of this is where a fire wall can terminate at the underside of a noncombustible roof that has a covering of __________________. pg. 165 Low Combustibility
Non-free standing firewalls that do not have parapets are not readily identifiable from the outside of a building. This is particularly true for fire walls with a ______ hour rating. pg. 166 2 hour
_________ are interior walls used to subdivide a floor or area of a building that do not qualify as fire walls. pg. 166 Fire Partitions
___________ can be used for fire partitions where visibility is desired and a fire rating is required. pg. 166 Fire-rated Glazing
Stairwells in buildings ____ stories or less, are required to have a 1-hour enclosure. pg. 166 3 stories
In buildings taller than 3 stories, they are required to have _____ hour enclosures for stairwells. pg. 166 2 hour
When a building is constructed using a structural frame for its main structural support, the exterior wall functions only to enclose the building and is known as a ________. pg. 168 Curtain Wall
The required fire resistance for a curtain wall depends on _______ and ________. pg. 168 Separation distance between buildings and The Building Occupancy
________ hardware is used on both sliding and swinging fire doors. pg. 172 Fire Door
What type of glass will crack when exposed to fire but will remain in place until it begins to soften and fall out? pg. 173 Wired Glass
Fire doors with rating of 1, 1-1/2, and 3 hours can have glass panels up to _______ sq. inches in area per door. pg.173 100 sq. inches
The louvers in a fire door must close in case of fire. Usually, louvers are closed by means of _________. pg. 174 Fusible link
________ is used for either sliding or swinging fire doors and can incorporate a hold-open device or can be self closing. pg.174 Fire door closers
___________ is intended to be used with a suitable door closer and can be used in conjunction with a smoke detector. pg.174 Door Holders
__________ consists of an electric operator that opens and closes the door for normal use. pg.174 Door Operators
An overhead rolling steel fire door is often used to protect an opening in a fire wall in what type of occupancy? pg.175 Industrial occupancy
When an overhead rolling door is installed across corridors without a swinging door at the same location it may create __________. pg.175 A Dangerous Dead End Corridor
What is the term for metal composed of tin and lead? pg.176 Terneplate
Smooth galvanized sheet metal is used on wood-core doors known as _____________. pg.176 Kalamein Doors
Fire doors made with galvanized steel or terneplate are commonly referred to as _________. pg.176 Tin Clad
The allowable tensile strength of wood is about ______ PSI. pg.198 700 PSI
Most structural lumber has a moisture content of ______ or less. pg.198 19%
Laminated wood members are produced by joining flat strips of wood with glue. The beams produced by this method are known as ________. pg.199 Glulam Beams
_______ is the strongest of the three SCL products and can be used for heavily loaded colums and long spans. pg.201 Parallel Strand Lumber
_________ is sometimes referred to as flakeboard ao shavingboard. pg.202 Particle board
__________ are made up of 2-inch nominal members that are all in the same plane. pg.204 Light Frame Trusses
One serious and fundamental drawback to wood as a building material is its ____________. pg.206 Combustibility
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of wood and begins at a temperature somewhere below approximately ________deg. F. 392 deg. F
The _________ of a fuel is the total amount of thermal energy that could be released if the fuel were completely burned. pg.208 Heat of Combustion
The two main methods of fire retardant treatment are ___________ & ____________. pg.210 Pressure Impregnantion & Surface Coating
Buildings using a wood structural system are often referred to by FF's as ________________. pg.212 Frame Buildings
In heavy timber framing the colums are not less than ______ inches and the beams are not less than ________ inches. pg.212 8 X 8 & 6 X 10
The most popular form of wood framing is known as ____________ construction. pg.216 Light wood-frame
The two basic types of light wood framing are _____________ & ____________. pg.216 Balloon Framing & Platform Framing
Platform framing is also known as ___________. pg.218 Western Framing
The usual requirement for attic space to be subdivided into areas of 3000 sq. ft. is known as ___________. pg.219 Draft Stopping
The use of ______________ does somewhat increase the possibility of a fire starting within a wall. pg.221 Combustible Insulation
In a brick bearing wall every _______ course of brick is a header course. pg.223 Sixth
Buildings with exposed interior walls with no finish can be classified as Type _____ under building codes. pg.223 Type V-B
A building that can be classified as TypeV-A has a wood structural frame, floor, and roof that is provided with a fire resistance time of ________. pg.223 One Hour
What type of Gypsum board is difficult to penetrate with hand tools? pg.224 Impact resistant gypsum board
What is Molybdenum added to steel for? pg.258 Increased strength
What % of carbon is added in common structural steel? pg.256 Less then 3/10 of one percent carbon.
A very common used steel for structural purposes is designated: pg.259 ASTM A36
According to the fire service what is steels most significant characteristic? pg.259 the deterioration of strength at elevated temperatures
Failure of unprotected steel to a greater or lesser degree can be anticipated, because teperatures are regularly encountered in excess of _________ deg. Farenhiet. pg.259 1200 degrees
Beam and girder steel frames can be classified as ________, ________, or _________. pg.263 Rigid, Simple, or Semi-rigid
In the case of a ________ frame, the joints are designed primarily to support a verticle force. pg.264 Simple frame
Three dimensional space frames are known as: pg.265 Delta trusses
joint girders are heavy steel trusses used to take the place of steel beams as part of the __________________. pg.266 Primary Structural Frame
Steel rigid frames are usually used for spans from ____ to _____ ft. pg.267 40ft to 200ft
What is the connection used by a trussed arch to allow for slight movement between two halves of the arch? pg.267 PIN connection
The possibility of buckling is greater with _______ columns than with columns made of other material. pg.268 Steel
The _____________ is a number that compares the unbraced length of a column to the shape and area of its cross section. pg.269 Slenderness ratio
The investigation of a structural collapse must include an evaluation of the _________ and their means of support. pg.269 Columns
In gabled ridgid-frame structure the _________ between the roof and the wall will be the strongest part of the frame and the last part to fail. pg.271 Knee Joint
What are (SFRMs)? pg.272 Spray Applied Resistive Materials
The most commonly used SFRMs are mineral fiber or expanded aggregate coatings such as ___________ and ___________. pg.273 Vermiculite & Perilite
High-density SFRMs that use _________________ have densities ranging from 40 to 80lb/cu ft. pg.273 Magnesium Oxychloride
A ________ is always rated as part of a floor and ceiling assembly. pg.274 Ceiling
Hardening of concrete involves a chemical process known as _________. pg.282 Hydration
Concrete that is cured at or above _______degrees will not reach its proper strength. pg.283 100 degrees
Normal design strength for concrete is reach after ______ days. pg.283 28
Concrete beams are frequently cast in the shape of a _____. pg.284 tee
_________ reinforcing bars are known as Stirrups and are provided to resist the diagonal tension. pg.284 Vertical
To avoid buckling in reinforcing bars in columns, _________ reinforcing is provided around the vertical bars. pg.286 Lateral
The ____________ is used to check the moisture content of concrete. pg.289 slump test
From a fire fighting standpoint, the roofs of buildings can be classified into three style: ______, _____, and _______ pg.305 flat, pitched, curved
A ______________ is created using sherical triangulation. pg.310 geodesic dome
This assembly uses split-ring connectors at all joints except the heel plates located at the ends of the truss. pg.316 Bowstring Trusses
The use of plaster as an interior finish material declined in the second half of the 20th century page 10 The useful life span of a building can range from 25 to 100 years or more. Page 10
A fire officer can be faced with difficult situations because the building variables affect the course of the fire. What are these building variables? Age of the building, fire protection systems, occupancy type, fuel load, type of construction, configuration, and the buildings access and exposures. Page 11
The age of a building is not in itself a hazard but age is often an indication of what? Potential hazards. Page 12
Older neighborhoods sometimes undergo extensive rehabilitation to satisfy the desires of a modern real estate market what is this a definition of? Gentrification. Page 12
Older buildings offer some advantages to firefighters the design methods used or less precise. This necessitated the use of structural safety factors that resulted in greater structural mass and was absolutely necessary. What are the advantages? Greater structural stability under fire conditions. Page 13
What is the first line of defense in a building? An automatic fire protection system, especially an automatic sprinkler system. Page 13
Very often a _______is only discovered when a fire or building inspector visit the property in the course of a routine inspection. Change of occupancy. Page 14
Type 1 construction is referred to as what? Fire resistive. Page 14
Type 2 construction is referred to as what? Protected non combustible or non combustible. Page 14
Type 3 construction is referred to as what? Exterior protected. Page 14
Type 4 construction is referred to as what? Heavy timber. Page 14
Types 5 construction is referred to as what? Wood frame. Page 14
A wood frame structure with a brick veneer can frequently be mistaken for a building with what? Masonry bearing walls. Page 14
A building may include portions that are wood joists did masonry along with other portions that are non combustible when is this combination of classification especially likely? When an older structure has been enlarged or has undergone renovation. Page 15
The______ of a building refers to its general shape or layout. Configuration. Page 15
What type of design choices can significantly affect fire behavior and the response of building elements to a fire? Large undivided areas, ceiling heights, and vertical openings between floors such as stairwells & atriums. Page 15
Access is a primary factor for fire department operations. All aspects of terrain and build out environment affect the department's ability to access buildings. Examples of terrain features that cause excess problems include. Steep slopes, rivers, and landscaping. Page 16
Built out environments that cause access problems include. Narrow roadways, setbacks, and barriers placed for security. Page 17
NFPA defines a building as an exposure when the heat from an external fire might cause ignition of or damage to the exposed building. Page 17 And tactical firefighting the term exposure is also used to refer to a structure or an object to which a fire could spread. Page 17
The earliest provisions of building codes were directed at the danger of_______. Conflagrations. Page 17
Where does the problem of communication of fire remain significant? An older urban environments. Page 17
Communication of fire from building to building occurs by____- or ______. Convection and radiation. Page 18
_______ is the transfer of heat by the movement of liquids or gases usually in an upward direction. Conviction. Page 18
________Are also significant when the exposed building is higher than exposing building. Convective plumes. Page 18
Horizontal communication of fire is mainly due to what? Thermal radiation. Page 19
Thermal radiation is the transfer of heat energy through space by what? Electromagnetic waves. Page 19
All bodies in thermal radiation at a rate dependent on their absolute temperature. Page 19 When two bodies such as two buildings have different temperatures, there will be any transfer of energy from the body of high temperature to the body of low temperature. Page 19
Flame temperature alone is not the only factor in determining if a fire can communicate to an exposed building. The ____, namely the _____&_____of the exposing flame is also factor. Area, the height and width. Page 20
Recommended practice for protection from exterior fire exposure. NFPA? NFPA 80A page turner
NFPA 88 describe three levels of exposure based on the potential severity of the exposing fire. The standard classifies the levels of exposure as ____, _____, & ______. Light, moderate, or severe. Page 20
The exposure levels of severity are based on fire load and the flame spread rating of the _____and _____of the exposing building. Walls and ceiling finishes. Page 20
Because I fully involved building can communicate fire cross wide streets, possibility of communication of fire should always be included in what? Pre incident planning. Page 20
To the firefighter building failure usually means what? Structural collapse. Page 21
The communication of fire through a fire rated barrier can be viewed as a failure. Page 21 The unsatisfactory performance of a fire protection system is also a failure. Page 21
Potential sources of building failure under fire conditions can include some or all of the following: Structural integrity, building systems, design deficiencies. Page 21
The collapse of a building under fire conditions is a result of the loss of a buildings what? Structural integrity. Page 21
the structural integrity of the building under fire conditions is related to the_____ and ______ which it is constructed. Fire resistance and combustibility of the materials. Page 21
_______ permits effective interior attacks and, therefore, is of fundamental importance to the firefighter. Structural integrity. Page 21
visions built into building systems that prevent the spread of combustion products include: Smoke detectors to shut down units or to operate dampers in ducts. Page 21
______ refers to a failure to provide a level of fire safety appropriate to the ultimate use of the building. Design deficiencies page 22
One very basic aspect of building safety is the provision of an adequate number of exits. This number is determined by what? The number of persons likely to occupy a building, subject to building code provisions for occupancy quest bacations. Page 22
Design deficiencies can occur and fire protection systems such as failure to provide adequate water supply for a sprinkler system when can this occur? When the magnitude of a likely fire or fire load is underestimated. Page 23
Codes can only provide a_______ level of protection for the most commonly encountered situations. Reasonable. page 23
What is the best course of action in specific cases where a code may not providing adequate level of safety. or compliance with the provisions of a code may not be possible? A fundamental technical analysis of the problem. Page 23
Some building construction is undertaken without an occupant being known. These buildings are referred to as______. Spec buildings. Page 24
When buildings become obsolete and unmarketable, they frequently become a target for what? Arson. Page 24
In earlier times, the appearance of the building was determined by the materials used in its construction. Page 25 The overall design of the building, as well as the individual details, is determined by available funds. Page 25
______ is such an important concern to an architect that is frequently clashes with fire safety concerns. Aesthetics. Page 27
A _______ is a body of law that determines the minimum standards that buildings must meet in the interests of Community Safety and Health. Building code. Page 28
It is the__________ that determines, by law, the kinds of buildings in which the firefighter must ultimately fight fires. Building code. Page 28
The practice of adopting a model code saves the many government entities the task of writing a fairly complex document and provides a fundamental degree of_______ among jurisdictions. Uniformity. Page 28
The ______, and ______, complement each other and are intended to be used together. Both must be used together during facility design. The International Building Code and the International fire code. Page 28
NFPA 1, uniform fire code. NFPA 5000, building construction and Safety Code. NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. Page 28 and 29 In 1990 the Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law. Page 30
To provide accessibility for persons with impairments, the ADA requires the removal of what? Architectural barriers. Page 30
Manual fire alarm stations must not be more than ____ feet and not less than____ feet above the floor level so they can be reached from a wheelchair. 4.5' & 3.5'. Page 30
An ________ is a protected area where a person can remain temporarily until someone else provides assistance or instructions Area of refuge. Page 30
Areas of refuge may not be required in buildings equipped with what? Automatic sprinkler system. Page 30
Where required, the areas of refuge must be equipped with______ so individuals can call for assistance. Two way communication. Page 30
The increased awareness of the sometimes negative impact of human activities on the environment has resulted in efforts to make buildings more energy efficient. This overall concept is known as what? Green design. Page 32
Unusual designs or circumstances may require the use of compensatory measures or equivalencies rather than strict compliance with a prescriptive code. Page 36 Building codes provide for an appeals process to resolve differences in interpretation of the specific provisions of the Code or to review an alternative means of complying with the code. The appeals process usually involves a Board of Appeals. Page 36
Subdivision of existing spaces through the creation of partitions can be hazardous, creating ______ for emergency responders. Maze like floor plans. Page 37
One method is managing construction projects is a technique known as fast tracking. In a fast track project, the design and construction phases overlap. Page 37 The primary role of the fire inspector is to ensure proper installation and operation of the fire protection systems. Page 39
Inspection of the construction takes place during and upon completion of the project. Inspections are performed by whom? The architect or representative, building department, owner's representative. Page 38
Documentation of fire protection system test results should be maintained by who? The Fire Prevention Bureau. Page 39
There are several ways tactical firefighters can develop knowledge of building construction in their jurisdiction what are three? Building permit process, pre- incident planning, geographical information systems GIS. Page 40
Obtaining information through the building permit process is particularly useful in the case of what type of structures? Large structures such as hospitals, shopping malls, and high rise buildings. Page 40
By pairing Global Positioning Systems GPS with survey information, GIS applications also provide a means for determining exact locations necessary for placement of critical building elements. Page 40 Because buildings periodically undergo renovation or remodeling, free incident planning cannot be a one-time occurrence. Page 40
It is also critical to pre-plan during construction because buildings probably are never closer to______ than they are during construction or renovation. Falling down. Page 40
Fire emergencies during this stage result in emergency response during the worst time for accessibility and building stability. Construction or renovation. Page 40
The task of the Tactical firefighter is to understand the____, ____, and _____ of a building so emergency operations of all types can be carried out effectively. Design, construction, and functioning. Page 41
Stairs that are a part of the required means of egress must meet strict requirements of the applicable Building Code, and generally are______ or_______. Either fully enclosed or protected open exterior stairs. Page 109
Exit stairs must resist ____and ____ to ensure safe passage during building evacuation. Fire and smoke. Page 109
Stairs that are not part of the means of egress are often referred to as what type of stairs? Convenience stairs. Page 109
It is not unusual to find______ provided to access mechanical spaces, roof hatches at the top of stairways, and between root levels with portions at different elevations Ship's ladders. Page 109
In buildings _____or more stories in height, one stairway is generally required to the extent to the roof unless the slope of the roof is especially steep. 4. Page 109
This type of stairs extend in a straight line for their entire length. Landings may be found, breaking up the stairs vertical travel at intervals specified by codes. Straight run stairs. Page 109
This type of stairs have an intermediate landing between floors and reverse direction at that point this type of stair design it common in modern construction. Return stairs. Page 110
This type of stairs are two separate sets of stairs constructed in a common shaft. Sometimes the egress from the stairway is into one quart or on even numbered floors and into the opposite corridor on odd numbered floors. Scissors stairs. Page 110
For this type of stairs firefighters may need additional hose to connect to a standpipe on the floor below the fire. Scissor stairs. Page 112
This type of stairs are often found is grand stairs or convenience stores serving only two levels. Circular stairs. Page 112
This type of stairs are typically found in dwellings where they are used to provide access to an attic space that does not have a permanent access there. Folding stairs. Page 112
This type of stair design allows stairs to be placed in a very small space. Usually found in private homes. Spiral stairs. Page 113
The only penetrations permitted in a stairway enclosure are those for____, _____, & _____. Light, fire protection, and environmental control. Page 114
What type of fire rated doors are required for stairway enclosures? Self or automatic closing fire rated doors. Page 114
Enclosed stairs on the exterior of a building are considered the same as interior enclosed stairs. Page 114 Fire escapes are usually anchored to the building and are not supported at ground level. Page 115
Building codes have traditionally required minimum of one smoke proof staring closure for stairs serving buildings___ stories or higher. 5 stories. Page 116
Building codes require a minimum of one smoke groups during closure for stairs serving floor levels more than____ feet below the level of exit discharge. 30'. Page 116
Typically, smoke proof steering closures are on the exterior perimeter of the building and are entered through ventilated vestibules or open exterior balconies. Page 116 A passive smoke proof stairwell enclosure is accessed by using a vestibule or an exterior balcony. Page 117
Three methods of passive smoke containment: Vestibule open to atmosphere. Open air balcony. Smoke shaft open to atmosphere. Page 118 Hydraulic elevators do not have brakes, cars are slowed and stopped by controlling the flow of hydraulic fluid back into the reservoir. Page 120
Building codes typical allow the use of open stairs and buildings only when they connect no more than two adjacent floors above the basement level. These stairs are sometimes referred to as______. Convenience stairs. page 118
This type of elevator is a passenger elevator that has been designed to carry freight. Service elevator. Page 119
Electric elevators are subdivided into either ___ or ___ devices. Drum or traction devices. Page 120
This type of elevator is obsolete and is found only in very old structures. However they still may be found in use as freight elevators. Drum elevators. Page 120
During normal operation, the brakes on traction elevators with AC motors a directly and stopping the car at the correct floor. Page 121 On elevator cars with DC motors the brakes do not play any part in actually stopping the elevator car. The motor stops the car and then the brakes are applied to hold the car in place. Page 121
_____ is an electric switch design to stop the elevator car by removing power before it reaches the upper or lower limits of the hoistway. A terminal device. Page 121
This elevator safety feature are large springs or hydraulic cylinders and pistons located at the bottom of the pit that act as shock absorbers should the terminal switch fail. Buffers. Page 121
This elevator safety feature is also known as the speed governor. Slows the drive motor when an elevator starts to exceed a safe speed. Speed reducing switch. Page 121
This elevator safety feature is activated if the speed reducing switch fails to slow the car sufficiently. Overspeed switch. Page 121
This elevator safety feature are tapered sets of steel jaws that wedge against the guide rails and bring the elevator to a stop. Car safeties. Page 121
Elevator hoistway enclosures usually are required to be a fire rated assembly with a__ or __ hr rating. One or two hour rating. Page 122
If an elevator hoistway is not vented at the top, the acumulated hot gases and smoke me tend to what? Mushroom. Page 122
If a building contains 3 or fewer elevators, the codes permit them to be placed in one hoistway. Page 123 When four or more elevators are provided, there must be a minimum of two separate hoist ways. Page 123
In very tall buildings elevators are divided into zones with 1 zone serving the lower floors and another zones serving the upper. A zone usually serves ___ to ___ floors. 15 to 20. Page 123
______Hoist ways are used for express elevators that serve the upper elevator zones in tall buildings Blind. Page 123
In single car hoist ways access doors will be provided for rescue purposes. Generally these are placed every____ floors 3. Page 123
Older escalators usually operate at speeds of either ___or___ feet per minute. 90 or 120. Page 125 Speeds now has been standardized at 100 feet per minute.
Typically, the vertical openings created by escalators need to be protected when serving more than two floors. The most common method of protecting the vertical opening is to use_____ in conjunction with_____ around the opening. Closely spaced sprinklers, draft stops. Page 125
______ is a term generally applied to the vertical pathway shaft in a building that contains utility services. Utility chase. Page 126
_____ is a type of utility chase used to contain piping needed for building services such as hot and cold potable water, drain lines, steam, hot and chilled water for heating and air conditioning, and sprinkler pipeing Pipe chase. Page 126
Occasionally buildings do not have pipe chases but instead use_______. Stacked mechanical equipment rooms. Page 127
Systems that make use of water as the heat transfer medium are known as what? Hydronic systems. Page 130
Mini HVAC systems involved the distribution of conditioned air through a building from one or more mechanical equipment rooms. Such systems are generally known as what? Forced air systems. Page 130
Standard for the installation of air conditioning and ventilation systems. NFPA? NFPA 90 A. Page 131
Codes require that HVAC ducts being closed in a fire rated shaft enclosure. NFPA 90 A requires that the enclosure be 1 hour rated for buildings less than four stories in height and 2 hour fire rated for buildings for stores or greater. One hour, two hours. Page 132
Sometimes interstitial spaces the space between a suspended ceiling and the roof deck are used as a return air plenum. Page 134 Smoke control means the use of mechanical equipment to produce pressure differences across smoke barriers to inhibit smoke movement. Page 135
The automatic transfer HVAC to fire operations can be done by ____, ____, or ____. Smoke detectors, sprinkler water flow switches, or heat detectors. Page 135
Continuing the supply of air to the non fire floors creates a ______ of higher air pressure on floors above and below the fire floors. This reduces the migration of smoke into those areas. Pressure sandwich. Page 135
When an HVAC system has both automatic and manual capability come of the manual shall take priority over the automatic control. Page 137 A smoke control system should not be activated with the manual pull station. This is to avoid the possibility of occupants seeing a fire but not operating pull station until they have fled to another area of the building. Page 137
There are two methods that can be used to protect an enclosed stairwell from smoke one method is to make use of _______. The other is to provide for______ Smoke proof tower, stairwell pressurization. Page 138
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