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AP Gov Court Cases

QuestionAnswer
Marbury v. Madison- 1803 It formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. It was also the first time in the world that a court invalidated a law by declaring it unconstitutional.
McCulloch v. Maryland- 1819 In a unanimous decision, the Court held that Congress had the power to incorporate the bank and that Maryland could not tax instruments of the national government employed in the execution of constitutional powers.
Scott v. Sandford- 1875 Under Articles III and IV, no one but a citizen of the United States could be a citizen of a state, and only Congress could confer national citizenship. The Court then held the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.
Munn v. Illinois- 1877 Waite argued that the states may regulate the use of private property "when such regulation becomes necessary for the public good."
Plessy v. Ferguson- 1877 Based on the separate-but-equal doctrine, it was constitutional for Louisiana to have separate train cars for both blacks and whites.
Sandford Oil CO. v. US- 1911 the Supreme Court of the United States found Standard Oil guilty of monopolizing the petroleum industry through a series of abusive and anticompetitive actions. The court's remedy was to divide Standard Oil into several competing firms.
Schenck v. US- 1919 Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to freedom of speech against the draft during World War I. The case established the "clear and present danger" test.
Brown v. Board of Education- 1954 declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 which allowed state-sponsored segregation.
Roth v. US- 1857 The Court repudiated the Hicklin test and defined obscenity more strictly, as material whose "dominant theme taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest" to the "average person, applying contemporary community standards."
Mapp v. Ohio- 1961 The United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
Baker v. Carr- 1962 Decided that reapportionment (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) issues present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide reapportionment cases.
Miranda v. Arizona- 1966 The Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed his rights.
Furman v. Georgia- 1972 decision that ruled on the requirement for a degree of consistency in the application of the death penalty.
Roe v. Wade- 1973 The Court decided that a right to privacy under the due process clause in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion.
U of C v. Bakke- 1978 Decision on the permissible scopefactors in an admissions program, but only for the purpose of improving the learning environment through diversity in accordance with the university's constitutionally protected First Amendment right to Academic Freedom.
Webster v. Reproductive Health- 1989 Decision upholding a Missouri law that imposed restrictions on the use of state funds, facilities and employees in performing, assisting with, or counseling on abortions.
Bush v. Gore- 2000 Ruling in Bush's favor, the court In a per curiam decision, the Court ruled that the Florida Supreme Court's method for recounting ballots was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
14th amendment- incorporation clause Incorporation doctrine applied the Bill of Rights to the states.
10th amendment- reserved clause According to the Tenth Amendment, the government of the United States has the power to regulate only matters delegated to it by the Constitution. Other powers are reserved to the states, or to the people.
Created by: 1192045874