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APES Test1

The Earth

time scale based on the sequence of layering of the rocks and evolution of life relative time scale
time scale based on the natural radioactivity of chemical elements in rocks radiometric time scale
principle that each given rock layer is older than those above it and younger than those below it principle of superposition
factors that complicate the geologic time scale 1. sequences of rock layers are eroded, tilted or distorted 2. rock layers laid down at same time in different areas can have different appearances 3. rock layers only show part of Earth's history
three sections Earth can be divided into biosphere, hydrosphere, and internal structure
section of earth that contains all forms of life both on land and in sea biosphere
section of earth that contains all forms of water hydrosphere
section of Earth divided into the crust, mantle and core internal structure
two main parts of the crust basalt-rich oceanic crust and granite-rich continental crust
the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho)
What is the mantle composed of iron, magnesium, aluminum, and silicon-oxygen compounds
what is the structure of the core? mostly made of iron and outer core is molten
two plate tectonic theories continental drift theory and seafloor spreading theory
five factors of continental drift theory 1. fossilized tropical plants on Greenland's icecaps 2. Glaciated landscapes in tropics of Africa 3. Tropical regions on some continents had polar climates in the past 4. Continents fit together like puzzle pieces 5. Similiarities in rocks between coa
crust and upper mantle lithosphere
areas on the earth where two tectonic plates meet and move toward eachother, with one sliding underneath the other and moving down into the mantle subduction zones
Three types of plate boundaries transform, divergent, and convergent
a boundary where plates slide past eachother transform boundaries
boundaries where plates slide apart from eachother divergent boundaries
boundaries where plates slide toward each other, commonly forming a subduction zone or orogonic belt convergent boundaries
if two plates collide and compress orogonic belt
This forms when two oceanic plates converge island arcs like aleutain islands in Alaska and Japan
this forms when two continental plate collide mountain range like the Himalayas
The area where the energy in an earthquake is released focus
directly above the focus on earth's surface epicenter
the strength or magnitude of a wave is measured by this logarithmic Richter scale
Two classes of seismic waves body waves and surface waves
these seismic waves travel through the interior of the Earth Body Waves
Two types of body waves P wave and S waves
these body waves travel through Earth and are caused by expansion and contraction of bedrock P waves
These body waves are produced when material moves either vertically or horizontally and travel only within the uppermost layers of earth S waves
4 things the severity of an earthquake depends upon 1. amount of potential energy stored 2. distance the rock mass moved 3. how far below the surface the movement occured 4. makeup of the rock material
series of waves created when a body of water is rapidly displaced usually by an earthquake tsumanis
these earthquakes generate the majority of all tsunamis subduction-zone-related earthquakes
what is the number one state for the quantity of earthquakes Alaska, then California and Hawaii
four types of volcanoes active, dormant, intermittent, or extinct
areas where plumes of magma come close to the surfacs hot spots
What do volcanoes introduce to the climate Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
What does the type of eruption depend upon the gases, amount of silica in magma, and how free the conduit is.
Methods of dealing with a volcano Modeling and data analysis for activity prediction, better evacuation plans, study of precursors, measuring changes in temperature and gas, magnetic changes, and changes in seismic activity
Which volcano ejected the largest sulfur dioxide cloud ever detected in history Mount Pinatubo in the Philipines
The six major types of Volcanoes fissure, shield, dome, ash cinder, composite, and caldera
this volcano type forms from a long crack in the Earth's surface through which magma erupts fissure volcano
this volcano type has a broad, shallow volcanic cone that arises because the running lava cools slowly Shield volcano (Mauna Loa and Kilauea)
this volcano type has a steep, convex slope formed from thick, fast-cooling lava Done volcano
this volcano type throws out a lot of ash into the air and is built up from alternate layers of ash and cinder ash cinder volcano (Paricutin)
This volcano type is built up from alternate layers of lava and ash and has many little craters on its slope composite volcano (Rainier, Shasta, Pinatubo, Fuji, and Vesuvius)
this volcano type is an older volcano with a large crater with many little craters formed in the crater caldera volcano (yellowstone caldera)
Factors that affect the amount of solar energy at the surface of the Earth Earths rotation, Earth's revolution around the sun, tilt of Earth's axis, and atmospheric conditions
True or False: Seasons are NOT caused by Earth's distance from the sun True
a thin layer on top of most of Earth's land surface soil
three main ingredients of soil minerals of different sizes, organic materials from the remains of dead plants and animals, and open space that can be filled with water or air.
Soil develops in response to these four factors 1. Parent Material: rock and minerals from which the soil derives 2. climate: rain and temperature 3. Living organisms: help to decompose nutrients 4. Topography: physical characteristics of the location
this includes leaves and partially decomposed organic debris. thick in deciduous forests and thin in tundra and deserts surface litter
organic matter, living organisms, inorganic materials. very thick in grasslands topsoil
dissolved and suspended materials move downward in this area zone of leaching
tends to be yellowish due to accumulation of iron, aluminum, humic compounds, and clay. Rich in nutrients subsoil
partially broken down inorganic materials weathered parent material
very fine particles, compacts easily, forms large dense clumps when wet, low permeability to water, becomes waterlogged easily clay
coarse particles, consists of rock fragments gravel
about equal mixtures of clay, sand, silt, and humus. rich in nutrients, holds water but does not become waterlogged loam
sedimentary material coarser than silt, water flows through quickly, good for crops and plants requiring low amounts of water sand
sedimentary material consisting of very fine particles between the size of sand and clay, easily transported by water silt
three common forms of organic fertilizer animal manure, green manure, and compost
Layering of soil profile from top to bottom surface litter (O), topsoil (A), zone of leaching (E), subsoil (B), weathered parent material (C), and bedrock
the community of organisms living all or part of their lives in the soil soil food web
the movement of weathered rock or soil components from one place to another soil erosion
poor agricultural techniques that lead to soil erosions monoculture, row cropping, overgrazing, improper plowing of the soil, and removing crop wastes
three common types of soil erosion sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion
this erosion is when soil moves off a horizontal layer sheet erosion
this erosion is when fast-flowing water cuts small channels in the soil rill erosion
this erosion is an extreme case of rill erosion gully erosion
This soil erosion is when the productive potential of arid or semiarid land falls by at least 10% due to human activity and/or climate change desertification
this soil erosion occurs when water that is not absorbed into the soil and evaporates leaves behind dissolved salts in topsoil salinization
this soil erosion is when saturation of soil with water results in a rise in the water table waterlogging
Three main categories of rocks metamorhpic, igneous, and sedimentary
this type of rock has been subjected to tremendous heat and pressure, like slate and marble metamorphic rock
this type of rock has been formed by cooling, such as granite and basalt igneous rock
this type of rock has been formed by piling of materials over time sedimentary rock
Created by: kp1793
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