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bones and joints

gym instructor info about bones and joints

QuestionAnswer
Name the four classifications of bones 1. Long Bones 2. short bones 3. flat bones 4. irregular bones
example of a long bone femur humerus
example of a short bone carpals tarsals
example of a flat bone scull scapula ribs
example of a irregular bone vertebrae
structure of a long bone diaphysis - periosteum - epiphysis - articular cartilage
describe diaphysis shaft of the bone, dense compact bone covered by a hard outer casingq
periosteum hard outer casing of the bone
epiphysis bone end less dense spongy bone covered by articular cartilage
articular cartilage covers the bone ends and allows the bones to move more freely over each other and ot protect the bone beneath from possible friction
Name the five functions of the skeleton Storage - Shape - Protection - Production - Movement
What does the skeleton store? In the long bones there is a storage of mineral like calcium and phosphorus necessary for bone health
Shape? The skeleton gives us our supportive framework giving us our charateristic shape.
Protection? The skeleton protects delicate structures . the skull protects the brain
Production? Red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body. White blood cells contribute to the bodys defensive system.
What is osteoporosis? Brittle bone disease.
What is a joint When two or more bones meet to form a joint whether they allow movement or not.
Ligaments connect bone to bone prevent unwanted movement make joints more stable
Name the three types of joints Immoveable Slightly moveable Freely moveable
Immoveable fibrous fixed joint no joint cavity bones are held together by fibrous connective tissue little or no movement possible
Bone is classified as what? Connective tissue
Ossification means what? When calcium and minerals are deposited on cartilage which then hardens and becomes bone.
Osteoblasts are cells which? create new bone
Osteoclasts are cells which? remove existing bone
What age does the skeleton mature 25
To which age to the bones get stronger 35
Risk factors contributing to osteoparosis low body fat percentages (less 20pc) smoking excessive alcohol sedentry lifestyle inadequate diet insufficient calcium intake
Which hormones work in favour of osteoblasts? Ostrogen in women Testosterone in men Calcitonin (from thyroid) and calcium intake.
According to Wolfs Law which percentage of skeleton is replaced by a healthy regular active person 10per cent
Description of long bones Act as levers greater in length long diaphysis variable number of epipyses most are slightly curved (shock absorbers at different points)
description of short bones Strong less mobile than long bones cubed shaped equal in length than width spongy bone tissue (except on surface which is thin layer compact bone)
description of flat bones vary in shape generally thin parallel plates of compact bone enclosing layer of spongy bone tissue provide a large surface for muscle attachment
decscripton of irregular bones bones which cannot be grouped into any other category eg vertebrae
Created by: allisonhearsum
 

 



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