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Midterm 4 Ch 16 & 17

Physiology 2420

The maximum volume of air that can be inspired from the end of a normal respiration inspiratory reserve volume
Which of the following is not part of the respiratory zone in the respiratory tract? Goblet cells, alveolar macrophages, Type I cells, Alveolar pores goblet cells
Which of the following is not a direct factor in lung compliance? pulmonary surfactant, surface tension, lung elasticity, capillary exchange capillary exchange
Which of the following makes up a layer of epithelial cells that overlies the wall of the alveoli? Type I cells
Respiratory distress syndrome in an infant results from an inability to breathe because of excess surfactant production in the alveoli by type I cells. True/False False
There are phagocytic cells within the lungs that move among the alveoli to remove foreign particles. True/False True
Which of the following is not part of the conducting zone in the respiratory tract? respiratory bronchioles, trachea, terminal bronchioles, primary bronchi respiratory bronchioles
The alveolar dead space is a volume of air that cannot cross the alveoli to remove foreign particles. True/ False False
The primary force responsible for air moving into the lungs during inhalation is ________________. atmospheric pressure
The amount of air that enters the lungs during normal, restful breathing is called the ____________. tidal volume
The functional gas exchanging units are termed _______________. alveoli
The compliance of the lung increases as the lungs expand. True/False False
What are the most powerful stimuli for breathing? low pH; high CO2
The amount of air that cannot be expelled is the _____________. residual volume
What structure bufurcates into the bronchi that enter the right and left lungs? trachea
What are the smallest and most distal structures that remain a component of the conducting zone in the respiratory tract? terminal bronchioles
What is the function of ciliated cells in the conducting zone? propel mucus containing trapped particles toward the glottis
The transition from the conducting to the respiratory zone in the lungs occurs at the ______________. respiratory bronchioles
What are the most common cells that line the surface of the alveoli and are therefore associated with the exchange of gases within the lungs? Type I alveolar cells
What type of cells secrete mucus in the respiratory tract? goblet cells
What is the connective tissue that surrounds each lung called? pleural sac
When air is no longer moving through the respiratory tract and the airway is open to the environment, the pressure within the lung is equal to _____________. atmospheric pressure
The difference between what two pressures drives air into and out of the lungs? atmospheric; intra-alveolar
Name one of the four pulmonary pressures involved in respiration and describe how that pressure affects ventilatoin. atmospheric, intra-alveolar, intrapleural, and transpulmonary. Breathing has to do with the differences between atmospheric and intra-alveolar pressures Intrapleural keeps the lungs inflated/ transpulmonary is the distending force across the lung wall.
Name one function of the alveoli gas exchange
Why would it be advantageous to calculate the alveolar ventilation instead of the minute ventilation? alveolar takes into account dead air space
Explain Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) Test and what kind of disease it test for. FVC test-maximum inhale followed by a forceful exhale. Low FVC indicates restrictive pulmonary disease.
Explain Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) test and what it test for. FEV- % of FVC that can be exhaled within a certain length of time (usually 1 second). Low FEV indicates obstructive pulmonary disease.
What is Internal Respiration? Internal respiration- oxygen use within the mitochondria to generate ATP.
What is external respiration? External respiration- exchange of oxygen and CO2 between the atmosphere and body tissues.
The transpulmonary pressure is the difference in pressure between what two other pressures? Intrapleural, intra-alveolar
Is it more advantageous for lungs to have low or high compliance? high compliance
What is one way lungs increase or decrease compliance? Decrease elasticity=increase compliance. Decrease surface tension=increase compliance.
What is one way the body compensates for metabolic alkalosis? breath less; decrease H+ secretion
What is the function of type II alveolar cells? secrete surfactant; increase compliance
Name one function of the respiratory zone. exchange of gases between air and blood by diffusion
What is one way the body compensates for metabolic acidosis? breath more; increase H+ secretion
Created by: GracieLou



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