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Praxis II PLT :(

Praxis II PLT study info

Piaget cognitive development; ss go thru 4 stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor- senses and motor activity; preoperational- gradually develops language & ability to think in symbolic form, think op thru logically in 1 direction, cant see POV others
Piaget 2 concrete operational- able to solve concrete problems in logical fashion, conservation, classify, seriate, reversability; adult formal operational- able to solve abstract problems, more scientific in thinking, concerns about social issues
Bruner the instructor should try to encourage ss to construct hypotheses, make decisions, and discover principles by themselves; ss build on what they have already learned; spiral curriculum- teaches big ideas first, details over time later on
Dewey learning is active, should be fun, schooling is unnecessarily long & restrictive; ss should have real, guided experiences; should be involved in real-life tasks & challenges
Bandura social cognitive theory= adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, & expectations to social learning theory; people learn through observing others' behavior, attitudes, & outcomes
Vygotsky sociocultural theory= emphasize role in development of cooperative dialogues b/c children & more knowledgeable members of society. children learn the culture of their community through these interactions
Gardner multiple intelligences- have a biological & cultural basis; logical/mathematical, linguistic, spatial/visual, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal (others), intrapersonal (self)
Maslow hierarchy of needs: 4 lower-level-deficiency needs: survival, safety, belonging, self-esteem; 3 lower-level: intellectual achievement, aesthetic appreciation, self-actualization
Skinner behaviorism; behavior is sandwiched b/w two sets of environmental influences: those that precede it (its antecedents) & those that follow it (its consequences)
constructivism/constructivist approach view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding & making sense of info
Metacognition knowledge about our own thinking processes
readiness readiness to learn involves a level of development at which the child has the capacity to learn specific materials
schema basic structure for organizing info; concepts
transfer influence of previously learned material on new material
scaffolding support for the learner and problem solving- helping them reach their ZPD
Zone of Proximal Development phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support
intrinsic motivation motivation associated with activities that are their own reward
extrinsic motivation created by external factors such as rewards & punishments
Erickson psychosocial theory= relation of ppl's emo needs 2 social environment; at each stage, individual faces a developmental crisis a conflict b/w a good & a possible bad alternative the way a person resolves each crisis affect self-image & view of society
Learning Styles characteristic approaches to learning & studying;
Kohlberg theories of moral development preconventional; judgment based on personal needs &others rules Conventional: judgment based on others approval, family expectations values, laws of society Post conventional: judgments based on personal principles
Gilligan ethic of care; ppl move from focus on self to moral reasoning based on commitment 2 certain ppl & relationshps, then 2 highest level of morality based on principles of responsibility & care 4 all ppl
visual impairment & challenges ss may be delayed in- concept development, communication, motor skills & mobility, self-help, social skills; intervention= auditory signs, large font, use braille, hands-on activities, orientation & mobility cues
special physical or sensory challenges ss w/significant physical disabilities, health impariments, & TIB gen. qualify 4 special ed. services under 3 IDEA categories- orthopedic impairment, other health impariment, & tbi; intervention- use others as resources,flexible in planning,be creative
mental retardation limited intellectual functioning that affects an individual's learning;interventions- determine readiness, present objectives simply, present material in small, logical steps, motivate ss & maintain attention; focus on a few target behaviors or skills
behavioral or emotional disorders ss whose behavior falls considerably outside the norm, is chronic in nature, & is socially or culturally unacceptable; intervention- ensure interventions are developmentally appropriate & address the unique strengths & weaknesses of the individual
Developmental disabilities mental or physical disabilities that impari the person's functioning in language, learning, mobility, self-care, or other important areas of living; range from mild to severe; ss present a wide range of characteristics, strengths, & challenges
Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against ppl w/disabilities; protects equal opportunity to employment & public services, accommodations, transportation, & telecommunications
Individualized Education Program (IEP) purpose is to provide an appropriate ed. that meets specialized needs of each ss w/disabilities; developed & implemented by the multidisciplinary team
IEP includes ss levels of ed.performance, including how their disability affects ss involvement in gen curriculum; special ed & related services, modifications; measureable annual goals, explanation of extent ss wont participate in gen ed class;
More on IEP includes projected date for beginning of services & modifications, their anticipated frequency, & location, duration; how ss progress toward annual goals will be measured; method to inform parents of progress; intended to serve as planning guides 4 teachers
Inclusion the placement (from part to full time) of ss w/disabilities in gen ed classroom w/ special ed supports & services as necessary
mainstreaming refers to the participation of ss w/disabilities in gen. ed classrooms to the extent that is appropriate to mee their needs
Section 504 of the rehabilitation act defines handicapped person; defines appropriate education; prohibits discrimination against ss w/disabilities in federally funded programs
due process not only esures tht everyone w/a stake in the ss ed success has a voice, but also addresses written notification to parents for referral & testing for special ed
learned helplessness the expectation, based on previous experiences w/a lack of control, tht all one's efforts will lead to failure
self-efficacy a person's sense of being able to deal effectively w/a particular task; beliefs about personal competence in a particular situation
operant conditioning learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents
reinforcement use of consequences to strengthen behavior
positive reinforcement strengthening behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior
negative reinforcement strengthening behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when the behavior occurs
successive approximations small components that make up a complex behavior
extinction the disappearance of a learned response
punishment process that weakens or suppresses behavior
continuous reinforcement presenting a reinforcer after every appropriate response
intermittent reinforcement schedule presenting a reinforcer after some but not all responses
critical thinking evaluating conclusions by logically & systematically examining the problem, the evidence,& the solution
problem solving creating new solutions for problems
social development: changes over time in the ways we relate to others
cooperative learning situations where elaboration, interpretation & argumentation are integral to the activity of the group & where learning is supported by others
direct instruction/explicit teaching systematic instruction for mastery of basic skills, facts, & info
concept map a drawing that charts the relationship among ideas
inquiry learning approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation & ss solve the problem by gathering data & testing their conclusions
Madeline Hunter's effective teaching model 1. anticipatory set 2. objective & purpose 3. input 4. modeling 5. checking for understanding 6. guided practice 7. independent practice 8. closure
David Ausubel's advance organizers a method of briding & linking old info w/new; info that is presented prior to learning & can be used by the learner to organize & interpret new incoming info
mastery learning proposes that all ss can learn when provided w/the appropriate learning conditions in the classroom
mnemonics techniques for remembering; the art of memory
standardized tests tests given, usually nation-wide, under uniform procedures
norm-referenced assessment of ss achievement in relation to one another
criterion-referenced testing in which scores are compared to a set performance standard
achievement tests standardized test measuring how much ss have learned in a given content area
aptitude tests tests meant to predict future performance
assessment of prior knowledge reminding ss of info they have already learned relative to a new topic
portfolios a systematic collection of a ss work over a lengthy period of time
self-evaluation the process of evaluating one's own performance or behavior
performance assessment assessment in which ss demonstrate their knowledge and skills in a nonwritten fashion
validity the extent to which an assessment instrument actually measures what it is intended to measure
reliability the extent to which an assessment instrument yields consistent info about the knowledge, skills, and abilities one is trying to measure
norm-referenced a score that indicates how a ss performance on an assessment compares w/the average performance of other ss
criterion-referenced a test score that specifically indicates what ss know & can do
mean average- add all the scores and divide by the number of people
median middle score in a group of scores
mode most frequently occuring score
analytical scoring scoring ss performance on an assessment by evaluating various aspects of their performance separately
holistic scoring summarizing ss performance on an assessment w/a single score
rubrics a list of components that performance on an assessment task should ideally include; used to guide the scoring of ss responses
percentile rank a test score tht indicates the percentage of ppl in the norm group getting a raw less than or equal to a particular ss raw score
stanine a standard score w/a mean of 5 & a standard deviation of 2; it is always reported as a whole number
raw score a test score based solely on the number or point value of correctly answered items
grade equivalent score measure of grade level based on comparison with norming samples for each grade
standard deviation a statistic that reflects how close together or far apart a set of scores are & thereby indicates the variability of the scores
standard error of measurement a statistic estimating the amount of error likely to be present in a particular score on a test or other assessment instrument
formative assessment gathering info which is used to shape & improve future instruction- can use mult. times a day
summative assessment done at the end of a project or period of time; it determines the effectiveness of a unit, program, grade level, etc.
diagnostic assessment also known as pre-assessments; provide instructors w/info about ss prior knowledge & misconceptions before beginning a learning activity
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142B) mainstreaming law; requires states to provide a free & appropriate public education for ss w/disabilities; least restrictive environment
Americans with Disabilities Act Prohibits discrimination against ppl w/disabilities in the private sector; protects equal opportunity to employment & public services, accommodations, transportation, & telecommunications
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act allows districts to use RTI model for determining whether a child as a specific learning disability & no longer requires that a child have a severe discrepancy b/w achievement & intellectual ability to qualify
LRE- Least Restrictive Environment the setting most like that of ss w/o disabilities that also meets each child's educational needs
Created by: jcolombo
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