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bio 26.2

EA 9th bio unit 26.2

material that makes up most of the skeleton of the fetus of a vertebrate cartilage
What structure characteristic is unique to vertebrates? backbone
functions of an exoskeleton protection, support, movement, prevents water loss
individual parts of an endoskeleton bones
process in which cartilage is replace by bone ossification
What are the 2 nutrients needed for proper bone development? vitamin d and calcium
importance of haversian canals found in the bone and provide places for blood vessels and nerves
4 types of moveable joints ball and socket, hinge, pivot, and gliding
importance of vitamin d in bone allows bone to collect the calcium
importance of calcium in bones gives energy and strength to the bone
a tough, elastic, connective tissus that attaches muscle to bone is a____ tendon
nonstriated or__muscles move many of the internal parts of the body.involuntary controlled smooth
bones connected with one another at a __ that is often flexible, aiding the movement of an organism or its parts. joint
__is controlled by hormones and involves the shedding of the exoskeleton molting
the support structures found in many complex animals make up the__ skeletal system
living cells that are found within the minerals of a bone osteocyte
during muscle contraction, one end of the muscle and the bone to which it is attached do not move. site is called__ point of origin
during muscle contraction, one end of the muscle and the bone to which it is attached move. point of insertion
protein that composes the thicker part of the filaments in striated muscle myosine
muscles specialized tissue. work with the skeleton to provide movement in vertebrates and arthropods
muscle tone provides enough contraction of muscles to support the body and keep the muscles ready for quick contractions
striated voluntary muscles. one of 3 types of vertebrate muscles. most important in terms of locomotion
extensor the muscle which when contracted, causes a joint to straighten. triceps
flexor muscle in which when contracted causes the bending of a joint. biceps.
periosteum all bones are enclosed by an outer layer called__
joints are held together by a connective tissues called ligaments
bone marrow compact bone, the center cavity contains this tissue.
gliding joints give bones flexibility
fixed joints are in the skull
type of joint formed by the joining of the femur and pelvis is called ball-and-socket
jet propulsion used by jellyfish, they push water underneath to push in the opposite direction of the water.
water vascular system starfish
setae small hairlike structures that are on each segment of the worm.
elbow hinge
shoulder and hip ball and socket
hypo of sliding filaments contracts fully or not at all
CP creatine phosphate. formed when ATP donates phosphate molecules to creatine. when energy is needed, the phosphate is released to join ADP to form ATP. the creatine is the reused
oxygen debt when cell is obtaining ATP energy, anaerobic respiration.
osteoporosis loss of bone minerals
structure of bones osteocytes(bone cells). has haversian canals, controlled by striated muscle
exoskeleton external, found in arthropods
arthropods moves using muscle and skeletons. opposite muscle movement occurs. muscle on inside of exoskeleton
fiber long cells in striated muscle that have many nuclei, made of fibrils
fibrils make up fibers
sarcomere part of the fibril from one Z line to another
actin thinner filament
acetycholine causes a release of calcium ions to muscle fibers
density mass/volume
marrow stores fat
spongy bone tough tissue, not containing minerals
z lines actin point of attachment
periosteum bones' outer covering
minerals osteoblasts store___
Created by: 544