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What is Risser's sign? the growth along the iliac crest epiphysis, how it starts to calcify.
The Risser's sign shows what kind of bone formation? Endochondral
What is "Endochondral"? Cartilage replaced by bone
With the bones of the spinal column, how are they formed? Endochondrally or intramembranously? They are formed endochondrally
Example: You like to do marathon and your daughter is going to immitate you and she start running. She goes from doing 2-3 miles a week, 20-30 miles a week, to 70-80 miles a week. Is this an example of Wolf's law or Heutervolkmann rule? Wolf's law
someone running at 50 years old, a 60 mile run, is an example of wolfs law? yes because at 60 years old those epiphysis are already closed.
what’s the difference between Heuter Volkmann rule and Wolf’s law? Heuter volkman’s rule is about immature bone. Wolf’s law is about mature bone
Somites are going to end up differentiating/changing into? myotomes (develop muscles), dermatomes (forming skin), and scleratome (develop to vertebrae, ribs, and TP’s, and the annulose fibrouses).
how many centers of chondrification are there going to be? where are they? 4! one on the right and left of the centrum and one on the right and left of the neural arch.
how many primary centers of ossification (at birth) are there? 3, one on the vertebral body, one on the left and right halfs of the vertebral arch.
How many secondary centers of ossification are there? 9! there is one that goes right the ring around the top of vertebral body and one that goes ring around the bottom vertebral body - that's how the height is going to end up increasing in there (2). the other sevens are: 2 SAP, 2 IAP, 2 TP, and 1 SP
Notochord forms the ___________? nucleaus pulposes
The spinal cord comes from the ______________? neural tube
What are the three parts of intervertebral disc? Vertebral enplate, annulus fibrouses, and nucleus pulposes.
Annulus fibrosus is made up mostly of what? And what is it good for? type 1 collagen, fibrocytes are in there, it is good for tensile force
What is in the nucleus pulposus and vertebral enplate? there are condrocytes. In the nucleus pulposus theres going to be more type 2 collogen.
So annulus fibrosus joins from the outside that is type one collagen fibro, what type of cells? Fibrocytes
For the nucleus pulposus, type 2 collogen, what type of cells? And for the articular cartilage? Chondrocytes (for both questions)
______________ is the material to resist compressive forces, type 2 collogen is set up for that. The nucleus pulposus
On the outside, the ______________, on top and bottom, it’s a barrier and lets in things like oxygen, glucose, water, and sulfate across. It prevents large molecules/cells that are coming into the vertebral disc. cartilaginous endplate
________________ increases tensile forces, they are very strongly hydrophilic, its going to pull water into and its gonna push outside on the walls of the annulus and cartilaginous endplate to keep it apart annulus fibrosus
What are the parts on your vertebral disc? cartilagenous emplate, annulose fibrouses, and nucleus propulses.
FTQ: When does disc degeneration starts? Why does it starts? It starts in your teens, Not because that its damage but because you got decrease blood supplies that are going into those tissues.
What holds the water in your disc? proteoglycan
What binds two molecules of water to it? chondryoton sulfate
what is the important nutrients for the disc? oxygen and glucose
how many intervertebral discs are in the spinal column? 23
Where does the intervertebral disc start and end? C2-3 to L5-S1
what is located on the side of the intervertebral disc? annulose fibroses
what type of collagen is in annulose fibroses? type 1 collagen
what's the function of annulose fibroses? resist tensile forces and compressive forces
what kind of cells are in the annulose fibroses? fibrocytes
what kind of cells are in the nucleus pulposes? chondrocytes
what's the function of nucleus pulposes? resists compressive forces
what does cartilagenous enplate composed of? chondrocytes
what's the function of cartilagenous enplate? keeps RBC and large molecules out. lets in nutrients in (H20, oxygen, glucose, and sulfate)
what are metabolic products? lactic acid and CO2
what are the two important proteoglycan? chondroyton sulfate and keratin sulfate
which proteoglycan binds to two water molecule? chondroyton sulfate (know this)
proteoglycan (chondroyton) synthesize what? oxygen
What is it called when we start losing disc height due to lack of nutrients and oxygen to our discs? disc degeneration
The anterior and anterolateral of neurological innervation is supply by what? grey ramus
the lateral, posterior, and posterolateral of neurological innervation is supply by what? the sign and vertebral nerve.
What can alter blood supply? diabetes, smoking, inactivity, etc...
blood vessels that are going to be inside the vertebral body, what's the name of these blood vessels? interosseus artery, interosseus veins
what are the two venus plexus inside the vertebral body? Anterior and posterior internal venus plexus
what are the two venus plexus outside the vertebral body? Anterior and Posterior external venus plexus
what will be draining the vertebral body (the posterior portion of the vertebral body)? the anterior internal venus plexus
so what happens to pain with disc herniation? it decreases over time.
what is sequester disc herniation? disc herniates all the way through the annular fibers
what is annular tears or circumferential tears? nuclear material is coming out, then it's kind of splitting the lamina apart
what is space occupying lesion? where the disc is pushing on the spinal nerve which would shut down the blood supply
what is another name for the sign and vertebral nerve? reperb meningeal nerve
what is the sign and vertebral nerve (aka reperb meningeal nerve)formed by? nuclear ramus
what's the name of the growth center epiphysis? Triradiate Y.
Ectoderm is going to develop into what structure? neurotube (development of the spinal cord)
somites develop into? sclaretone, dermatones, myotones.
if we don't get the proper division, what kind of vertebrae would we have after that? a quake vertebrae
dermatonal would be what kind of tissue? skin
myotomal forms what? muscle
sclaretomal forms what? bone
vertebra is develop by what kind of bone formation? endochondro
how many primary centers of ossification? 3
how many secondary centers of ossification? 9
where are the 9 secondary centers of ossification located? 2 sap, 2 iap, 2 tp, 1 sp, and top and bottom of the vertebral body
excess stress on growth centers result in what? decrease in growth rate (huetervolkmann rule)
from functional scoliosis to structural scoliosis is what principle? heutervolkmann rule/principle
If you dont have enough folic acid during 1st tri-mester of pregnancy, you can develop what? neuro-2-defects
which spinal column region have the greatest size of spinal canal for blood flow? cervical region
which spinal column region have the least blood flow? thoracic
one cery large artery that's going to come in from the left side, T9 to L3, what's the name of that artery? The Large/Great radicular artery
the vertebral artery, it's branched off of what artery? subclavian artery
what's the first vertebral foramin the subclavian artery enter and out of? C6 to C1
Describe the traveling of the sublclavian artery Enters C6 foramen, travels up and exits C1 transverse foramen, goes behind lateral mass, run through POSTERIOR ATLANTO OCCIPITAL Ligament (KNOW)
if the edge by the posterior arch of C1 calcify, what is it called? Posterior Ponticus
Basilar artery gives off what two branches? posterior spinal artery and anterior spinal artery
posterior spinal artery supplies how much of the spinal cord? 1/3
anterior spinal artery supplies how much of the spinal cord? 2/3
which is the biggest of the 4 to 9 levels of radicular artery? the Great radicular artery
what makes up the blood brain barrier? Endothelial cells
what is the purpose of blood brain barrier? stops RBS from getting in (?)
Created by: xlee