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11th Grade History

EQT Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
Describe America's "neutral" policy at the begining of WWII. The US would not aid any fighting nation, but could trade with them using a policy called cash and carry.
Why did the US enter WWII? The attack on Pearl Harbor.
What measures did Joseph Stalin use to control the people of the Soviet Union? He used terror and purges.
Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor? To cripple the US fleet to continue conquering Asia for raw materials in hope the US would not recover in time.
How did the government and the economy of the Soviet Union change under Stalin? Took over businesses and combined small family farms into large collectives.
Which two countries signed a nonaggression pact that eliminated the danger of a Soviet attack from the East? Germany and USSR
The Battle of Britain: What countries were involved? Germany and Britain
What was the role of Winston Churchill? Britain's Prime Minister
The Battle of Britain: What type of battle was it? Air
The Battle of Britain: What was the outcome? The British won because the Luftwaffe was unsuccessful so Germany would not invade.
Which country controlled most of Western Europe by 1940? Germany
Did Japan ally himself with the Axis Powers or the Allies? Axis Powers
What two countries declared war on the US after we declared war on Japan? Germany and Italy
How did the Axis Powers get its name? An "axis" between Rome and Berlin, the capitals of Italy and Germany.
After Hitler had invaded Czechoslovakia and made a pact with Stalin, which country did he invade next? Poland
What was the major US focus during the 1930's? Domestic Affairs
What was the purpose of Chamberlin's appeasement policy? To avoid war with Germany.
Which historical event contributed to the rise of facism in both Italy and Germany, as well as the rise of totalitarianism? WWI
Define Lebensraum. "living space", Germany's goal with getting more territory.
What happened at the city of Dunkirk? The greatest rescue in warfare history.
What is Nazism? Extreme form of facism used by Hitler and the Nazi Party in Germany.
Define Blitzkrieg. "lightning war", used by Hitler in Poland.
What were the Neutrality Acts? A series of acts that limited international involvement.
What was the goal of the American First Committee? This group of isolationists wanted the US to stop sending aid to Britain.
What was the Manchurian Incident? When the Japanese Army decided to take their own action and seize all of Manchuria.
What were the weaknesses of the Maginot Line? The guns only faced one direction and it only protected one border. German forces were able to get around the line and it became useless.
How did Nazis strip Jews of German citizenship? Passed the Nuremberg Laws.
What was the Final Solution? To kill all the Jews.
What is genocide? Organized the killing of a group of people (to eliminate all of Europe's Jews).
Nazi's systematic murder of European Jews... Holocaust
What jubs did women hold for the first time during WWII? steelworkers and welders
How did the US government meet the demand for war materials? By producing war goods for Allied forces.
How were Afr/Am soldiers treated during WWII in the North? They faced descrimination in employment, housing, and education.
How were Afr/Am soldiers treated during WWII as soldiers in the military? They fought in segregated units.
Who were the "code talkers" and what did they do? Navajo radio operators who secured US communication in the Pacific.
Why did the Americans not spend much of the money they earned in wartime jobs? There was a shortage of consumer items available.
What did the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) believe? Using nonviolent techniques to end racism
What happened to Japanese-Americans during WWII and why? They were confined to camps due to intense anti-Japanese sentiments and the fear of sabotage
What was FDR and Churchill's main strategy at the beginning of WWII? To concentrate on winning the war in Europe.
Which battle in Eastern Europe was the turning point for Germany when they suffered defeat? Stalingrad, Russia
In what part of the world were the battles of the Coral Sea, Midway, and Guadalcanal? The Pacific Theater
What happened to Germany at the end of WWII? It was divided into four parts; one part governed by Britain, one by the U.S., one by the Soviet Union, and one by France.
After WWII, what organization was formed out of the Atlantic Charter? The United Nations
What was General MacArthur forced to do when the Japanese advanced against his troops? Leave the Phillipines
What battle ended the Japanese offensive in 1942? Batlle of Midway Island
Explain the significance of D-Day. The landing of Allied forces on the Normandy coast of France
Explain the significance of VE Day. May, 8 1945 -- the end of the war in Europe (VE = Victory in Europe)
Explain the significance of the Manhattan Project. The secret U.S. project to develop an atomic bomb
Explain the significance of the atomic bomb (end of war). President Truman decided to authorize dropping atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Japan
Explain the significance of the Selective Training Service Act. To draft young men for the military forces
Explain the significance of Nuremberg Trials. Nazi war criminals were tried in Nuremberg, Germany and this established the concept that individuals are responsible for their own actions in war
Explain the significance of the Battle of the Bulge. After this battle, most German Nazi leaders recognized the war was lost
Explain the significance of Rosie the Riveter. Popular name for women who worked in war production jobs
What helped the US emerge from the Great Depression? Producing goods for the Allied forces
Who made the final decision to drop the atomic bomb? Harry S Truman
After the Allies gained control in Africa, what was their next target? Italy
Explain the significance of The Truman Doctrine. Truman promised US support of nations who were trying to resist Soviet control. Congress gave $400 million to Turkey and Greece.
Explain the significance of HUAC. House Un-American Activities Committee, a committee that charged Hollywood figures of being sympathetic to Communist ideas and created a blacklist that cost many film jobs in Hollywood and elsewhere.
Explain the significance of Julius and Ethal Rosenberg. Accused of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets
Explain the significance of deterrence. Policy of making the military power of the US so strong that no enemy would dare to attack for fear of retaliation.
Who dominated the Satellite Nations? The Soviet Union.
Where were the Satellite Nations located? Eastern Europe
How did the US respond to the Soviet Blockade of West Berlin? They responded with the Berlin Airlift.
Why did the Soviet Union build the Berlin Wall? To close an escape route to the west.
What was the cause of the Berlin Airlift? Soviet blockaded access to West Berlin.
What was NATO's principle? Collective security.
Why did nations join NATO? To protect themselves from Soviet aggression.
How did the Soviets respond to NATO? By forming the Warsaw Pact.
Identify the 38th Parallel. The designated divider between noth and South Korea.
What was the result of America's involvment in the Korean War? Korea remained divided at almost the exact same place as before, but South Korea remained free and not Communist.
Why was MacArthur fired? MacArthur was insubordinate.
What reason did the US become involved in Middle Eastern affairs after WWII? To provent Soviet influence in oil-rich Arab countries.
What did Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin decide at the Yalta conference? To divide Berlin into four areas.
What was the purpose of the Federal Employee Loyalty Program and the McCarthy hearing? To expose Communists in US government.
For fifty years, what was the characteristic of the Cold War? Political conflict and military tensions.
How did Truman react to the USSR's development of an atomic bomb? He gave approval to develop an even more powerful bomb.
When did Senator Joseph McCarthy's power fade? After he made accusations about the US Army during televised Congressional hearings.
During the "Cold War" what was the purpose of containment and deterrence? To restrict the spread of Communism (containment) and to keep the US and its Allies so strong.
Which nation successfully orbited the satellite Sputnik in 1957 to start the space race during the Cold War? the Soviet Union
How did the U-2 incident affect American public opinion and policy? Americans wanted to build up the military.
What happened in the US after the launching of Sputnik? It caused Congress to spend more money on teaching science and mathematics.
What was the new role of women in the 1950's? More women held paying jobs than ever before.
What was one result of the baby boom? Families moved from the cities to the suburbs.
Explain the popularity of rock-and-roll. It gave teenagers a style that they could call their own.
Describe Dr. Benjamin Spock's and Betty Friedan's views about the role of women. Dr. Spock thought women should stay home and raise the children while Betty Friedan felt that women should work outside the home.
How did television help the economy? Through advertisements.
Describe the effects of major highway building in the 1950's. Less reliance on public transportation.
How did Eisenhower, Coolidge, and Hoover feel about big business? They all favored big business.
What was the accepted role of women during the 1950's? Manage the household.
What did religion and rock-and-roll have in common in the 1950's? They were diverse trends.
What happened when the government lifted price controls after WWII? Prices rose faster than wages.
Identify and explain the significance of William J. Levitt. Mass-produced houses, making them more affordable.
Identify and explain the significance of evangelists. Popularity of evangelists.
Identify and explain the significance of Truman's greatest challenges in reconverting to a peacetime economy. Keeping inflation in check.
Identify and explain the significance of G.I. Bill of Rights of 1944. Legislation that allowed WWII veterans to attend college for free and provided housing assistance.
Identify and explain the significance of beat movements, beatniks. A movement by artists and writers that was an expression of their non-conformity.
Identify and explain the significance of credit cards. Easy and convenient to use.
Identify and explain the significance of computers. Smaller and faster.
Identify and explain the significance of Truman's Fair Deal. Extended the New Deal's goals.
What policy did King and other members of the SCLC encourage in order to achieve a victory in the struggle for civil rights? non-violent protest
What teaching of Gandhi influenced Dr. King? non violence
Dr. King was a founder and the first president of what organization? Southern Christian Leadership Conference(SCLC)
Why did MLK target Birmingham, Alabama? It was considered to be the most segregated city in the US?
How did many people, even opponents of civil rights movement, feel after watching televison coverage of the happening in Birmingham? They were appalled by the violence.
Who wrote he famous "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"? Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
What did the brutality against African Americans in Birmingham prompt Prresident Kennedy to do? To propose a stronger civil rights bill.
Why did President Eisenhower call out the Arkansas National Guard in 1957? To enforce school integration in Little Rock, AR.
Where did the Freedom Riders encounter resistance? Alabama
What was the goal of the Freedom Riders? To test a US Supreme Court decision requiring desegregation of buses.
Why did the Freedom Riders receive federal help? Because they were violently attacked.
What did the black power movement suggest that African Americans do? Separate from white society and lead their own communities.
Why did President Kennedy move slowly on civil rights issues? To avoid upsetting Southern Democratic Senators.
Why was the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party organized? To send delegates to the Democratic National Convention.
Discuss Strokely Carmichael's effect on the SNCC. It became a more militant organization.
What did the Black Panthers want African Americans to do? Lead their own communities.
Which leaders were assassinated in 1968? Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Senator Robert F. Kennedy
Define de jure and de facto segregation. de jure is segregation required by law and de facto is segregation that occurs by habit and tradition .
Who was the president that desegregated the military? Truman in 1948
What was the goal of the March on Washington in 1963? To convince Congress to pass civil rights legislation.
What were the highlights of the March on Washington? Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech.
What was the Civil Rights Act of 1964? Prohibited discrimination in public accommodations.
What did Lyndon Johnson have to do to gain passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? He overcame Senate filibusters.
Who organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)? African American ministers
What consequences faced protesters involved in "sit-ins"? They spent time in jail.
Identify and explain the significance of Freedom Summer. In 1964, civil rights groups targeted Mississippi for a voter registration drive for minorities.
Identify and explain the significance of Selma March. March with a goal of getting votiong rights legislation passed in Alabama.
Identify and explain the significance of Voting Rights Act of 1965. Allowed African Americans to be registered to vote and many were elected to public office.
Identify and explain the significance of Brown v. Board of Education. US Supreme Court decision overturning the "separate-but-equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson.
Identify and explain the significance of James Meredith. First African American to enroll at the University of Mississippi. President Kennedy had to send troops to restore order and protect Meredith.
Identify and explain the significance of Malcom X. A member and leader in the Nation of Islam who encouraged African Americans to separate from white society and was later assassinated.
Identify and explain the significance of Rosa Parks. One of the most important symbols of the civil rights movement, Posa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery City bus to a white.
Identify and explain the significance of Jackie Robinson. The first African American Major League baseball player.
Identify and explain the significance of Twenty-Fourth Amendment. Eliminated poll taxes.
Identify and explain the significance of Thurgood Marshall. First African American US Supreme Court justice.
Who established the Peace Corps and why? John F. Kennedy, to help underdeveloped countries and promote mutual understanding.
Why did the Soviets build the Berlin Wall? To prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West.
What was the purpose of the Immigration Act of 1965? To eliminate quotas restricting immigration from certain countries.
What challenge did John F. Kennedy give to the nation and NASA? To land a man on the moon and bring him safely back before the end of the decade.
Who established the Alliance for Progress and why? John F. Kennedy, to discourage the spread of Communism in Latin America.
Where was the Bay of Pigs and why was it important? Cuba- it was the site of an ill-fated, US- backed attempt by anti-Castro forces to land and overthrow the Castro regime.
How did the Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s affect apportionment (baker v. Carr)? They required that districts be redraw to "one person, one vote".
Why did JFK increase military spending? He was afraid that the Soviets would take over Europe.
What was a major guiding principle behind the foriegn policies of Kennedy and Johnson? To stop the spread of Communism.
What was JFK's campaign promises in the 1960 elections? To get American economy moving again.
What did the television debates show in the 1960 elections Kennedy was more polished than Nixon
What was the outcome of the election of 1960? Kennedy won by a very small margin.
What were some obstacles JFK faced during the election? Kennedy's age and religion.
What did Lyndon Johnson do as a senator? He was able to accomplish his political goals.
Why was the Great Society created? To promote healthcare legislation.
What was the outcome of the 1964 elections? Lyndon Johnson won by a landslide because of Goldwater's radical views, Johnson received a strong mandate.
What was one criticism of economic programs? Federal government was giving to much power and too much money to the poor people.
Identify and explain the significance of JFK's lack of support in Congress. Caused him to have a weak domestic record.
Identify and explain the significance of Warren Court(What was the focus?). Protecting the Constitutional rights of citizens accused of crimes.
Identify and explain the significance of the Cuban Missle Crisis (What was it and what was the result?).
Identify and explain the significance of the Warren Commission.
Identify and explain the significance of Great Society (parts of and criticism of.
Identify and explain the significance of Lee Harvey Oswald.
Identify and explain the significance of New Frontier goals.
Identify and explain the significance of Warren Supreme Court.
Created by: ilovemonkeys:)