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Bacteriology OSU

Bacteriology exam 3 and 4

QuestionAnswer
Penicillin (beta lactam) Blocks cross-linking of pentaglycyl bridge; leads to weakened mucopeptide and cellular lysis, spheroblast protoplast cytolysis; more effective in gram +, Requires growing cells; do not use with bacteriostatic drugs;
How to resist penicilins penicillinase, beta-lactamase hydrolyze beta-lactam ring to acid to inactivate most common and semisynthetic beta-lactams; constitutive or inducible altered penicillin-binding proteins; efflux
Cephalosporin (beta lactam) Binding enzymes involved in final process of cell wall synthesis inhibiting polymerization and attachment of new peptidoglycan to cell wall
Resist cephalosporin by Cephalosporinase, beta-lactamase hydrolyze beta-lactam ring to acid to inactivate most common and semisynthetic beta-lactams; constitutive or inducible; altered penicillin-binding proteins; efflux
Vancomycin (glycopeptide) Blocks crosslinking of peptidoglycan pentapeptides Vancomycin resistance
Polymyxin Affects cell membrane permeability; passes thru outer membrane of gram neg, dissolves cytoplasmic membrane; confined to gram neg No longer permeable or recognized
Aminoglycosides (protein synthesis inhibitor) Bind to 30S ribosome subunit to give misreading leading to missense or nonsense proteins
Aminoglycoside resistance Modification of antibiotic by acylation, phosphorylation, or adenylation
Tetracyline (protein synthesis inhibitor) Bind to 30S, blocks tRNA access prevent translation; bacteriostatic; Normally appears increments, carried on R-factors, decreased transport;
Tetracyline resistance efflux; ribosomal protection
Macrolides (protein synthesis inhibitor) (erythromycin) Prevent transpeptidation; bound to 50Sblocking macromolecule synthesis; gram pos Resist tetracyline by
Chloroamphenicol (protein synthesis inhibitor) Binds to 50S to prevent translation by blocking protein bond formation, also effects mammalian ribosomes; gram pos and neg; nonspecific
Chloramphenicol resistance Modification of acylation
Lincosamide (protein synthesis inhibitor) Blocks binding of 50S; erythromycin reverses effects; effective against anaerobes
Lincosamide resistance Modified and removed
Aminocylitol (protein synthesis inhibitor) (spectinomycin) Binds 30S; gonorrhea; chemotherapy; treats PPNG, Syphilis; modified and removed
Sulfa Drugs (antimetabolite) Bacteriostatic; competitive antagonism of para-aminobenzoic acid which leads to folic acid
Sulfa Drugs resistance Ineffective in presence of lysed cells in wound and also suppuration-- synthesis of enzymes insensitive to the axn of the drug
Quinolone (inhibitor of DNA/RNA synthesis) (Cipro) Block DNA gyrase which is essential for DNA replication and repair; pentrates most tissue Mutational alternation of target (GyrA, TopoIV, Par);resist by efflux
Staphylococcus aureus gram Pos; causes Boils, skin sepsis; postoperative wound infection; scalded skin syndrome; catheter associated infection; foodborne infection; septicemia, endocarditis; toxic shock syndrome; osteomyelitis; pneumonia
Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors Mucopeptide- toxic, antiphagocytic;Coagulase,diagnostic Cell Associated- capsul, protein A, fibronectin-binding protein, collagen-binding proteins, only species with protein A
Staphylococcus epidermis gram Pos;Device related sepsis such as:Catheter-related sepsis; prosthetic valve endocarditis; infection of artificial joints; shunt infections UTI; sternal wound osteomyelitis, MRSE common
Virulence factors of Staphylococcus epidermis Extracellular slime (makes biofilm) production may be a marker of virulence and aid in colonization of plastic implants.
Virulence factors of Staphylococcus epidermis Extracellular slime (makes biofilm) production may be a marker of virulence and aid in colonization of plastic implants.
Staphylococcus saprophyticus gram Pos; UTI in previously healthy women (associated with intercourse);Unknown; Can colonize periurethral skin and mucosa
Streptococcus pyogenes gram Pos;Upper respiratory infections and of skin and soft tissue (pharyngitis, cellulitis, “flesh eating”, erysipelas, lymphadenitis).Scarlet Fever; Non-Supportive Sequela: Acute Glomerulonephritis and Rheumatic Fever.
Toxic Shock Syndrome Erythrogenic toxin, streptolysins, streptokinase A and B, deoxyribonuclease; hyaluronidase (spreading factor), M and T antigen
Streptococcus agalactia gram Pos;Neonatal meningitis and septicemia;Mastitis in bovines Not known; Fulminating sepsis;CNS involvement
Streptococcus mutans Pos; Dental Caries Capable of causing endocarditis
Enterococcus (fecal strep) Pos;UTI; endocarditis; infrequent, but severe septicemia after surgery in immunocompromised.Plasmid-mediated hemolysin may play a role.
Streptococcus pneumoniae Pos;Pneumonia Septicemia, Meningitis, Otitis in children, Leading cause of otitis media; virulence factor Capsular type 3 associated with pneumonia.
Capsule protects from phagocytosis.Pneumolysin may play a role as a virulence factor but to date no known exotoxins; Viral infxn may be a precursor to pneumonia.
Virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule protects from phagocytosis.Pneumolysin may play a role as a virulence factor but to date no known exotoxins; Viral infxn may be a precursor to pneumonia.
Bacillus anthracis Aerobic Spore-Former; Pos; Anthrax; Woolsorter’s disease (inhalation anthrax);Polyglutamic acid capsule is antiphagocytic.
Exotoxin encoded on a temperature sensitive plasmid is produced; Toxin has 3 components:
Anthracis virulence factors Exotoxin encoded on a temperature sensitive plasmid is produced; Toxin has 3 components:
1) Edema factor 2) Lethal Factor 3)Protective Antigen.
Toxin acts locally on skin and lung. Individually the components have no biological effect but toxicity is produced by either of the 1st two factors together with the Ag.
Bacillus cereus Pos;Food poisoning (rice and pulses);Rare- bacteremia (especially in immunocompromised);Some strains produce heat stable toxin in food associated with spore germination.Vomiting w/I 1-5 hours;Others produce a leat liable enterotoxin after ingestion.Diarrh
Clostridium botulinum Anaerobic Spore-Formers;Pos;Intoxication is associated with disturbances of PNS function.Toxin specifically acts at the myoneural junction to produce complete paralysis of cholinergic nerve fibers; death
Patient may have diplopia or dysphagia Incubation period is 8-36 hours. Because of Clostridium Botulinum infection
Botulinum Inactivated by heating 100 degrees C for 10 minutes of 85 degrees C for 30 minutes. Polyvalent antitoxin is available.
Clostridium tetani Pos; Respiratory complications may occur;Site of action is the synaptosome although MODE of action is unclear.Toxin binds to gangliosides in synaptic membrane;Dependent on number and position of sialic acid residue in ganglioside;Excitation of CNS blockin
Corynebacterium diphtheriae Pos;Non-toxigenic organism can colonize so factors other than toxin production determines the disease. Invasiveness is controlled by a bacterial gene; toxin production is controlled by a phage gene (tox gene) Capsular antigens;Long chain fatty acids;Neura
Breaks down mucous for energy
Classic A-B exotoxin which catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of EF-2
diptheriea toxins Classic A-B exotoxin which catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of EF-2
Lysogeny and Tox gene;One tox molecule can inactivate an entire EF-2 content of a cell Pos;Acne and cutaneous lesions
Corynebacterium acnes Pos;Acne and cutaneous lesions
Corynebacterium parvum Pos
Corynebacterium minutissimum Pos
Group JK Pos
Listeria monocytogenes Pos;Primarily zoonoses.Neonatal sepsis or meningitis;Granulomatosis infant septicemia, can cross placenta (VERY rare for bacteria); Can cross BBB;Cold enrichment.O and H antigens;Several serogroups with one or multiple serovars.
Erysipelothrix Pos;Occupational disease in humans
Neisseria meningitides Neg;Metastatic lesions, petechiae, purpura hemorrhage.
Neisseria meningitides Meningococcemia which may progress rapidly to septic shock and meningitis.Waterhouse- Friderichsen syndrome- collapse of adrenals Capsular polysaccharide, lipopolyoligosaccharide (LOS), lipid A plus core w/o O antigen side chain
Virulence factors of Neisseria menigitides Immunoglobulin degrading enzymes, IgA proteases;Pili- allows adherence.Disseminated by direct contact and droplet infection
Neisseria meningitides virulence factors Immunoglobulin degrading enzymes, IgA proteases;Pili- allows adherence.Disseminated by direct contact and droplet infection
Created by: vpack87