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Music Therapy

Various Terms to study

QuestionAnswer
Alzheimer's disease A progressive, degenerative disease with insidious onset, (multiple cognitive deficits and significant decline in functioning).
Attention deficit disorder Disorder includes maladaptive inattention/hyperactivity/impulsiveness; pervasive/significant impairment.
Auditory discrimination The ability to hear similarities and differences between sounds.
Auditory memory The ability to retain and recall what is heard.
Auditory-motor match The process whereby warranted of sound results in a movement or response.
Autism Includes self-absorption, preoccupation with inanimate objects/dysfunctional/destructive/ritualisticbehaviors.
Behavior disorder A problem in social behavior which is sufficiently extreme as to interfere with the learning process.
Cerebral palsy Characterized by problems in movement, lather, and loss of voluntary muscle control, caused by brain injury early in life.
Communication disorder A disability which is characterized by the inability to transfer thought through speech, written word, or bodily gestures.
Conduct disorder A pattern of behavior characterized by the breaking of social norms, (serious violations, aggression, destruction or deceitfulness).
Dementia Characterized by detorioration in cognitive functioning, (memory, abstract thinking, judgement and problem solving).
Developmental disability A disorder originating before the age of 18 which constitutes a substantial handicap and continues indefinitely.
Disruptive behavior disorder Conduct disorder includes: oppositional/defiant behavior; not meeting other conduct disorder criteria.
Down's Syndrome A congenital abnormality of extra gene (21)/ mental retadration/physical abnormalities.
Fine motor dexterity The use of small muscles for reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects.
Forensic psychiatry Devoted to legal problems and infractions of civil law.
Gerontology The study of aging, behaviors and disorders of later life.
Guided Imagery and Music Listening to music in a relaxed state/imagery, symbols, feelsing=self-understanding.
Hearing impairment Any degree or type of hearing loss/deafness and hard of hearing.
Huntington's disease Affects CNS and causes involuntary movement/contortions (cognitive decline/behavioral symptoms).
Hyperactivity Behavior characterized by increased/excessive muscular activity.
Inclusion Placing children with special needs in regular classroom/give support and services.
Individualized Education Plan A written plan of instruction for children with special needs/includes goals, objectives and services.
Juvenile offenders Children who have committed offenses according to law.
Learning disorder Deficit in an specific area (learning)= decreased achievement.
Mental retardation Sub average intellectual functioning/impaired adaptive functioning; IQ<70.
Motor skills disorder Affects coordination/diagnosed in childhood/significant functional loss/not due to medical condition or PDD.
Multiply handicapped More than one impairment/physical or sensory/along with another handicap.
Neuromuscular disorder Affects nervous system and the muscles of the body.
Oppositional defiant disorder A condition characterized by persistent hostile and negative behaviors=functional difficulties.
Parkinson's disease A chronic nervous system disorder characterized by tremors, ridgity, and slow movements.
Pervasive developmental disorder A variety of mental/behavioral disorders without biological cause.
Physical challenges/impairments Any impairment of the body whch affects functional capacity.
Physical therapy A rehabilatitive treatment of physical impairment or challenge/massage, hydrotherapy, heat and exercise.
Pitch matching Imitation of highness of lowness of a sound.
Posttraumatic stress disorder Anxiety disorder/reexperiences a trauma/causes significant distress/functional impairment.
Rett syndrome Child loss of dexterity, coordinated gait, social engagement, language, psychomotor retardation.
Sensory impairment A disorder affecting contact with the environment through senses/kinesthesia.
Stroke Blockage of blood supply to the brain/transient, temporary or severe.
Traumatic brain injury Head injury sustained in an accident or other suddden onset.
William's Syndrome Neurological congenital disorder=delayed motor development, mild-moderate mental retardation, impaired vision or speech.
Accountability One is responsible/answerable for obligations to a set of constituencies.
Assessment Systematic approach/observation of person's strengths and weaknesses for treatment planning.
Data-based model Approach based on information retrieved through experimentation/direct observation.
Dysphoric Having feelings of dejection, misery, and underestimation of self.
Empathy Understanding another person's feelings, ideas and desires/place self in their "shoes".
Generalization Process of transferring/applying responses to different set of stimuli/new setting/behavior.
Goal Expected therapeutic outcome; a purpose/direction for therapy.
Insight Self-knowledge/deep understanding of personal issues/regarding aspects of symptoms.
Objective Expected outcome of therapy/defines goal/measurable and observable.
Target behavior Behavior(s) providing focus of therapy identified in the therapeutic goal/objective.
Termination Final stage of therapy/includes: evaluation of progress, plan for ending therapy, future follow-up plan.
Auditory learners Learns more easily through auditory means rather than visual means.
Fibromyalgia Nonarticular rheumatic disorder/pain, stiffness, extreme tenderness on muscles.
Hyperacusis Extreme sensitivity to sound.
Palliative Treatment designed to relieve symptoms rather than cure/chronic or terminal.
Contract A mutually agreed upon set of expectations, rules, policies/governs behavior.
Metaphor Experience/setting where behavior represents life experience.
Rapport Closeness/trust within the therapeutic relationship.
Reinforcement value Degree to which activity/material serves as reinforcement for behavior.
Assessment tool Test, device, form or instrument developed for measuring strengths and weaknesses.
Perceptual-motor Organization/interpretation of a stimulus and its response.
Posttest Assessment of skills given following a therapeutic intervention at the end of phase.
Pretest Assessment of skills given prior to a therapeutic intervention or experiment.
Reliability Degree to which a test/observation is consistent.
Sensory-motor Combination/processing of a sensory stimulus and motor response.
Validity The degree to which a test measures what it purports to measure.
Inter-observer agreement A measure of reliability of observers.
Long-term goal The desired outcomes after a considerable period of time.
Long-term objective Specific therapeutic aim, stated clearly as observable outcome, can be met in a period of time.
Response definition Complete behavioral description of target behavior; includes descriptive term, limits and strategies.
Short-term goal The desired outcome which is possible to achieve in the near future.
Short-term objective Specific therapeutic aim, stated clearly observable, able to be met in the near future.
Terminal objective The last in a series of various objectives/goals/expected outcomes.
Anecdotal record Narrative account of behaviors/events which is recorded while observing.
Antecedents Events which precede a behavior; sets the occasion for the occurrence of the behavior.
Baseline Record or graph of observed behaviors; recorded over time; no intervention.
Consequences Events which follow a behavior; sometimes as a result of occurrence of behavior.
Duration recording Notating the length of time a behavior occurs.
Frequency count Notation of the number of times a behavior occurs.
Interval time-sampling Notation of whether or not a behavior is occurring during a specific time period.
Planned Activity Check Notation of the number of participants engaged in a target behavior at the end of a observation session.
Reliability coefficient Measure of agreement between observers, the agreements are divided by the aggree/disagree, then divide by 100.
Behavior therapy Therapeutic intervention; change behavior.
Cue An event which sets the occasion for a certain behavior to occur.
Discriminative stimulus A cue which results on a response which occurs only after its presentation; not after other cues.
Fading The gradual removal of explicit prompts or cues in an attempt to maintain the behavior on its own.
Group contengencies Consequences for a group as a whole dependent upon occurrence of specified behavior.
Insight therapy Approach to psychotherapy; objectives are awareness which leads to control.
Melodic intonation therapy Clinical use of melodies; develop language skills in aphasic patients and propositional language.
Negative punishment Removal of stimulus which results in decreased behavior.
Paired associate The presentation of one word as a stimulus for the recall of a second word.
Positive reinforcement Presentation of a stimulus which results in an increase of behavior.
Psychiatry musicology Music therapy approach using music as a metaphor for examining relationships.
Psychodynamic therapy System of psychotherapy based on individual's unconscious motivation and past experiences.
Rational emotive therapy Albert Ellis; attempts to confront one's rational belief system as a method of solving problems.
Reconstructive therapy Insight-oriented therapy; examines unconscious and deep-set emotions; reconstructs personality.
Reeducative therapy Insight-oriented therapy; promotes self-growth and adjustment through behavior changes.
Schedule of reinforcement Behavior requirements; reinforce stimulus to be delivered/ fixed, variable, interval or ratio.
Shaping Developing new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior.
Successive approximations Behaviors which gradually resemble the target behavior or terminal objective.
Transactional analysis Eric Berne; examines interaction through explicit roles, games; recognizes and understands behavior patterns.
Baseline-treatment design A design which compares behavior under conditions of no or some treatment.
Case studies Examination of clients undergoing treatment and report progress.
Experimental group design Any number of designs which employs scientific methods and tests hypotheses, highly structured.
Hierarchy of objectives Logical sequence of behavioral expectations leading toward the desired outcome of therapy.
Matched pairs design Experimental design with two groups are similar; one with or without treatment.
Multiple baseline design Single subject applied behavior analysis; treatment is added and condition are held constant.
Pretest-posttest design Design sampling behavior prior and following treatment as an indication of progress.
Random group design Randomly assigns group members with or without treatment.
Repeated measures design Experimental group; repeated observation with subjects acting as their own control.
Reversal design ABA Single subject; aplied behavior deign; observe behavior at baseline and treatment.
Single subject, applied behavior analysis design Research design assesses the effect of treatment with one person or group over time.
Task analysis Detailed breakdown of behavior involved in a particular skill or task.
Countertransference The therapist's projecion of feelings, ideas and desires about others onto the client.
Phenomenological Perceived through subjective reality, as opposed to physically and objectively.
Transference The client's projections of feelings, ideas and desires about others onto the therapist.
Secondary gains Unexpected or unplanned outcomes over the course of therapy.
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