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pathophysiology-the cell 1.damage to cell 2.impairment of 1 or more cell structures 3. tissue/organ function affected 4. function of system affected 5. affects spead to another system 6. homeostatis disrupted
the cell adapts shrink-become less active, decrease mitochondia demand(atrophy), grow-more active in response to demand(hypertrophy), change-hyperplasia(number), metaplasia(type), dysplasia(structure)
The cell dies necrosis-cant meet demands of the nucleus
tissue healing 1.regeneration-replace injured tissue w/normal tissue-integrity and func restored 2. scarring-injured cells replaced by connective tissue-integreaty restored not function,
three phases of healing inflammation, proliferation and remodelling
Inflammatory phase 1. hemostatis-immediate vasoconstriction, activate platelets, control blood loss, 2.Vascular response-vasodialtion, incrase cell permeability, plasa exit vessel enter damaged tissue(edema), 3.cellular respons WBC clear the area of bacteria and dead cells
Proliferation phase close the tissue wound-fibroblasts secrete collagen-protien that binds to self and other tissue to create scar, tissue becomes vascularized and new tissue cells form
Remodeling phase overlap with proliferation phase, tissue remodeling occurs while collagen still being laid, simultaneous breakdown & deposition of collagen bonds, final collagen strucure forms in response to forces experienced
Acute inflammation 1.damaged cells release chemicals-histamine, bradykinins, prostaglandins, cause capillary dilation, increase cell permeability, 2reaction increase BF, plasma &protien enter interstitial space3.protiens in blood interact w.fibrin=collagen clot
acute inflammation 4+ chemicals attract luekocytes-prolong inflammation-act as phagocytes, dissolve absorb damaged cells 5. an inflammation continues, increase pressue, blood flow to ara decreased, damage to healthy cells in area=secondary hypoxic injury
Chronic inflammation result of long term chemcial irritation and mechanical stress, chemcial action and luekocytes-inhibits tissue healing, same s.s as acute-less intense, persissts until cause of cellular damage is removed
Signs and Symptoms of Inflammation P!-tissue damage, inflammatory chemcisas, ischemia--Swelling, erthema, heat-increased blood flowk, plasma fluid in interstiial space-decreased function-p!, local muscle guarding, loos of movement--eccymosis-RBC in the tissue
NSAIDs-arachidonic acid arachidonic-produces prostoglandins-basodilate &sensitize receptors to bradykinins& histamin-decrease p!threshold, increased sensiati vity to p!
lipoxygenase pathway arachodoinic acid pathway-inflammation w/ asthma
cycloxygenase COX pathway COX1 enzyme-production of prostoglandins rsponsible for protection of GI mucosa, maintian renal function, platelet aggregation--COX2 enzyme-production of prostaglandins responsible for inflammation, pain, febver, wound healing
Non-Selective/traditional NSAIDs inhipit COX1/COX2 enzyme(inhibit prostoglandins), reduce p!, swelling, fever, prevent"good" prosotglandins tht protect stomach
Selevtive(celebrex, vioxx, Bextra) Do not block COX1, COX2 inhibited
NSAIDs used as-antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic- lipid soluble:easily absorbed, stomach/sma intestin-produce effects w/in 15-30min, 7-10 days needd to evaluate effectiveness of drug-side effects-heart burn, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, GIbleed, ulscer
Corticosteriord usted to treat-asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, tendonitis, bursitis, dermatolical conditions, allergic reactions-how-decreased inflammation by inhibiting synthesys of arachidonic acid-administerd-orally, inhal, inj, topical, transdermal
corticosteroid side effects restlessness, dizziness, sleeplessnes, change skin color, unusual hair growth, eye pain, nausea, black stool, fluid retention, skin reaction, menstrual irregularities, prolonged sore throat, fever, tendon ruptures, decreased done density, GI disturbances
analgesics-acetaminophen treats-midle/mod p!, fever--dosage-tablets, capsules, chewAVLE, SUPPORISTORES-side effects increase risk for liver toxivity, overdose-does not inhibit platelet aggregation like NSAIDs
analgesics-narcotics/opiates treat-mod/sever p!, post-op, cancer--admin-oral, inj, rectal--side effects-drowsiness, euphoria, abuse, constipation--narcotics-oxycodone, demerol, opiates-morphone, codine
Antibiotics treat-bacterial inf, admin-oral, IM, IV--side effects-allergic reaction, dependant on drug-interact w/ oral contraceptives-less effective, misuse has lead to MRSA
bactericidal antibiotics inhibits synthesis of bacteria cell wall, works to kill invading bacteria
Bacteriostatic keeps bacteria from reproducing, allowing the immune system time to kill bacteria-high doesse or in conjunction w/ other antibiotics can kill
Antihistamines histamine-chemical mediator released during inflam, 3 types of histamine receptors-h1:respiratory tract, H2:stomach, H3:CSF,
H1 antihistamines tret allergies, cold, flue, skin-1st generation: lip soluble, pass blood-brain barrier=drowsy(benadryl), 2nd generation-less lip soluble less drowsiness(claritin, allegra)
H2 antihistamines reduce gastric acid production (H2 blockers)
Decongestants used to treat-nasal congestionw/ allergies, common cold, how-vasoconstirc blood vessels in nasal passage to help reduce swelling of mucosal membrane, admin-oral(sutafed), nasal spray Afrin-only use 305 days- rebond congestion),
decongestant side effects head ache, insomnia, restlessness, nervousness, do not use if HTN, heart diesase, raise heart rate, diabetics check with Md, may change insulin requirement
Bronchodilators used to treat-asthma, expand airways, relax bronchial spasm, admin-oral, inhaled(actquicker, fewer side effects) Side effects-side effects-tachycarda, increased BP, increased bloodsugar, nausea, vomit, nervousness, restlessness, diuretic
Gastrointestinal drugs-antidiarrheals treat symptoms od diarrhea, not underlying cause, opoids-decrease GI motility(immodium),absorbents-absorbs h2o, increase viscosity of stoll
GI drugs-laxatives bulkform-fiber, swells when mixed w/h2o, stimlatesperistalsis-12-72 hrs, osmotic lax-draw h2o to intestinal lumen, increasae peristaltis 1-3 hrs, stimlant-increase bowelmotility, stomach cramps 6-10hrs, stool softeners-soften contents of bowel, prevention
Gi drugs-antacids neurtalize stomach acid, used to treat peptic ulcer, heartburn, mild cases of GERD, take after meal, before bed, results:5-15 min, note:reduce absorption of other meds for 2 hrs
Proton Pump inhibitors(PPI) decrease acid production, take 30 min prior to meal, dosage depends on condition being treated
H2 blockers antagonists to histamine(h2), D acid production, dose dependant on condition being treated
Antifungals used to treat-superficial(mucous membrane, skin hair, nailes), systemic-side effects:oral:nausea vomit, abp!, HA, topical:itching burning, skin irritation
Fungicidals disrupt cell membrane kill fungus
Fungistatic prevent cell prlication, allows immune system to manage infection
Antivirals prescription only, used to treat/reduce the duration/severity of: herpes virus, inluenza
Created by: jwebst1