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muscle & movements

general questions - gym instructor

origin of the muscle... fixed end of the muscle attached to the bone that does not move as the muscle contracts. Contracting muscles move towards the origin
insertion of the muscle the insertion is attached to the bone that moves as the muscle contracts. When a muscle contracts the insertion moves towards the origin.
opposing muscle to the tricep is the bicep
opposing muscle group to the pectoralis major trapezius/rhomboids
opposing muscle to the rectus adominus erector spinea
opposing muscle to the hip flexors/rectus femoris gluteus maximus
opposing muscle to the triceps biceps
opposing muscle to the pectoralis major trapezius/rhomboids
oppossing muscle group to rectus adominus erector spinea
opposing muscle to the hip flexors/rectus femoris gluteus maximus
opposing muscle group to the quadriceps hamstrings
opposing muscle to the tibialis anterior gastrocemius/soleus
opposing muscle to the deltoids latissimus dorsi
the main muscle responisble for a movement is called the agonist/prime mover
the opposite muscle that relaxes is called the antagonist
muscles that help the movement are called synergists
these muscles contract isometrically to stop movement what are they called fixators
type one muscle fibres are which colour red
type two fibres are which colour white
what speed are the white fibres fast twitch
what speed are the red fibres slow twitch
white twitch have they got endurance and aerobic capacity no
have red twitch got endurance and aerobic capacity yes
have red twitch got strength and anaerobic capacity no
flexion decreasing the angle at a joint as in bending the knee
extension the return of flexion increasing the joint angle as in straightening the knee
lateral flexion bending to the side of the mid line of the body
lateral extension the return of lateral flexion straightening to the mid line of the body
hyper extension straightening beyond a person's natural range
horizontal flexion decreasing the joint angle, bending on a horizontal plane, pulling the arms together across the chest as in a pec deck exercise
horizontal extension the return of horixontal flexion as in straightening on a horizontal plan
abduction taking a body part away from the mid line of the body as in lifting the arm or leg to the side
adduction the return of abduction bringing a body part towards the midline of the body
rotation one bone moving around another as in turning the head from side to side or twisting from the waist
circumduction a large cone shaped circular movement possible at the hip and the shoulder
plantar flexion pointing toe down
dorsi flexion pointing toe up
elevation lifing of the shoulder girdle as in shrugging
depression the return of elevation lowering of the shoulder girdle
What does isometric mean? a static contraction, there is no change in the length of the muscle and no joint movement involved. e.g pushing against a wall.
What does isotonic mean? Dynamic or moving contraction. The muscle becomes shorter and fater and there is a movement at the joint it crosses. e.g. the upward and downward phase of a bicep curl.
Concentric and eccentric are related to what? The two phases of an isotonic contraction.
Isometric muscle contractions: useful in injury rehabilitation require less space requires little or no equipment
isotonic muscle contractions develops strength through full range of movement develops motor fitness nerve to muscle co-ordination suitable for all levels of fitness
concentric phase is ... when the muscle contracts to overcome a resistance and shortens. It is sometimes referred to the lifting positive or hard work pahse of an exercise eg the upward phase of the bicep curl.
eccentric phase is... when the muscle is still contracting and lengthens. It is sometimes referred to as the lowering or negative or easier phase of exercise.
Created by: allisonhearsum
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