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APUSH Ch 24-27

New Deal, WWII, Cold War

CH 24: Causes of the Great Depression Speculation-people thinking the stock market was high in worth, and then it crashed Margin Buying-buying into a stock and after it fails, having to pay back the stock broker. Forced Selling-selling stocks for less then you bought them for.
Causes of Great Depression(cont) Overproduction-making too many goods, in which consumers didn't have enough money to buy them. Unequal Distribution of Wealth- poor had nothing, rich were fine. Weak Foreign Trade-after WWI, foreign economies were too weak to trade.
Hoovervilles Poor people took random items to make shelters out of, called hoovervilles b/c they blamed hoover for not doing anything. Soup Kitchens, Bread lines, Evictions, Foreclosures, Hobos, and lack of econ prosperity.
The Dust Bowl Overuse of land made the land unusable, then the top soil blew everywhere leaving everything covered in dust, making the depression worse.
Hoover's Reactions Rugged Individualism- "pull yourself up by your bootstraps", telling the people to fix it on their own, lassez-faire. Aid should come from State govs. Encourages states to build public works
Hoover's Reactions(cont) RFC- Reconstruction Finance Corporation- gov loans to banks,railroads, and insurance companies. ERA-Emergency Relief Act-fed gov loans to states for direct aid.
Bonus Army vets were supposed to get money after war, after the depression they needed it asap; banks couldn't pay them; they marched to DC and camped out; military ran them out killing people and children.
Three R's Relief: direct aid($) to states and people. Recovery: work programs Reform: changing the economy/programs making them better.
Emergency Banking Act (Reform)Closed down all banks for a couple days to restore publics confidence in the banks.
FERA-Federal Emergency Relief Act RELIEF: gave jobs to people, ran by harry hopkins; gave $500 million to states; used for poor; criticized b/c they didn't want people relying on welfare.
CCC-Civilian Conservation Corps RECOVERY: gave jobs to men (18-25) in national parks; $30 a month; criticized b/c they're were segregated camps.
PWA-Public Works Administration RECOVERY: $3 billion for construction projects; schools, dams, hospitals, aircraft carriers; shutdown in 1941
WPA-Works Progress Administration RECOVERY: Gave jobs to artists, photographers, writers; 1935-45; criticized b/c people thought it was a waste.
TVA-Tennessee Valley Authority RECOVERY: built a dam on the Tennesse River; generated energy, flood control, provided jobs; criticized b/c it effected public industry, kicked people out of there homes in which the gov paid for, and created socialism.
Securities Act REFORM: restored publics confidence in stock markets; required securities disclosure(if a business was failing, the person invested would be notified); created SEC-Securities and Exchange Commisosion-to regulate stock market.
Glass-Steagall Act REFORM:Regulates bankingseparated commercial(limited in what they could invest in) and investment(invested in anything) banks; Created FDIC-Federal Depository Insurance Corporation-saying if a bank failed you still got some $ back.
AAA-Agricultural Adjustment Act REFORM: used to fix overproduction; paid subsidies to farmers to stop making crops; Criticisms: very controversial; declared unconst; created STFU; replaced by Soil Conservation Act(1935)
NIRA-National Industrial Recovery Act REFORM:Business-stabilizes;sets hours, wages, and production levels;voluntary(gov couldnt make them do it). Labor-legalizes unions;allows collective bargains(special benefits.)
NRA-National Recovery Act REFORM: Ruled unconst(1935); FDR overstepped his rights; replaced by Wagner Act.
Social Securites Act REFORM: provides support(money) for needy, diabled, unemployed, and old age; funded by taxes on business and employers.
Fair Labor Standards Act REFORM: banned child labor; set minimum wage.
Revenue Act REFORM: Raised taxes on wealthy; wealthy didn't like; criticized b/c they called FDR a "traitor"
Father Charles Coughlin(critic of FDR) Wanted banks nationalized; initially supported FDR; then he turned anti FDR, and anti jewish.
Dr. Francis Townsend(another critic) Wanted old age pension program; those over 60(retired) would get a $200 check monthly in which they must spend or they wouldn't get next months; paid out of treasury in which we couldn't afford; pressured FDR into making a social securities program.
Huey Long Planned a "Share Our Wealth" program benefiting everyone; limit income to $1 million, inheritence to $5 million; fortunes at $50 million; guarenteed families $2000 a year; free college, old age pensions; vet benefits; 30 hour work; four week vacations.
American Liberty League Attacked FDR's New Deal plan; very well funded by Conservatives; called him a traitor.
Court Packing Scheme Supreme Court striked down AAA and NRA; FDR got revenge by making it so there would be a new sup court judge added for every member over 60 to "ease their work load"; all compliant to the new deal; could go up to 15 members; FDR's worst blemish.
CH 25: Neutrality Acts 1935-37; bans arm sales to nations at war, bans loans to nations at war, trade must be "cash and carry"; revises(1939): arms sold on a cash and carry base.
Bases for Destroyers Deal Under an arranged trade, the US sends 50 Destroyers to US for the exchange of army bases in W. Hemisphere; FDR framed it so it wouldn't violate Neutrality Acts
Lend Lease Act We lended, not sold weapons to British; like lending a garden hose to you're neighbor.
Convoy System US naval ships used to protects shipments
Selective Service Act(1940) Starting drafting for war just in case to be ready.
Pearl Harbor Dec 7,1941; Cause-we cut off their supplies; Japanese use element of suprise on US and used aircraft carriers to destroy US Pacific Flat was in Hawaii; over 2000 killed; declaration of war the next day
Atlantic Charter(1941) Similar to 14 Points; devised by Churchill and FDR.
Casablanca Conference(1943) Decision to not except conditional surrender; "you take what we give you"
El Alamein Kasserine Pass British Victory US Defeat(revealed inexperience of our troops)
Mussolini Abdicates Plan to move up Italian peninsula failed; Mussolini fled
Stalingrad(1943) US not involved; Soviets stalled Germans by trapping and surrounding them in Stalingrad.
Nazi's Fall US closes from West, Soviets from East; FDR died April 12, 1945; Hitler commits suicide; German's surrender on V-Day(May 7)
OPA-Office Price Administration Regulates prices and wages
WPB-War Production Board Companies go from peacetime to wartime productions.
Rationing Similar to Meatless Mondays etc; people could only get certain foods with coupons.
Women Workers After men went to war, more women were working and roles of families changed.
Second Great Migration Af Am's moved off farms; opportunity of equality
Double V Campaign V-V: Victory both home and at war; Af Am's fought for both
Zoot Suit Riots Cause my anti mex uprisings
Japanese Internment Camps Japanese-Americans were suspected and over 110,000 shipped to only ten camps; not the best conditions; they became bored; spent duration of war in camps
Korematsu vs. U.S. Supreme Court upholds camos as const.; people look back at it as a hasty decision.
Manchurria Japanese invaded Manchurria; and their plan was to continue mocinv down and over until they were in the middle east to team up with Germany in Africa
Doolittle Raid US bombs Japan; april 1942; morale booster for US
Midway(June 1942) US broke Japanese code and attacked(anticipated); US sinks four Japanese carriers; turning point.
Island Hopping Goal is to reach and invade Japan; islands taken from 1943-44; Philippines recaptured; Japan introduces Kamikaze campaign; Iwo Jima and Okinawa are the last captured before invasion of midland(goal).
Atomic Bomb There was a concern of the loss of troops in Japan(est 1 million troops); Bomb is alternative; Truman chooses bomb; Under the Manhattan Project-which just had become complete; Japanese damage was extreme; pilots dropped bomb.
Hiroshima Nagasaki Enola Gay drops Little Boy; Japan refuses to surrender. Then Fat man is dropped on Nagasaki; Sept 2 1945 Japanese surrender.
CH 26: Yalta Conference FDR, Stalin, and Churchill meet Feb 1945; they wanted assurance from Stalin that countries that were destroyed would be restored, he agreed but lied; Poland becomes under Soviet control; Soviets fail to uphold Decl. of Liberated Euro(countries choose gov)
Yalta Conference(cont) Satellite nations were created-countries controlled by Soviets; Division of Germany-US, French, British, and Soviet's; Berlin divided into 4 zones
Potsdam Conference Truman, Stalin, Churchill in July 1945; Soviets want harsh punishments on Germany-to deindutrialize them; Truman disagrees strongly, wants to let Germany recover to avoid another Hitler like scenario; Truman uses Atomic bomb-drops hints to Stalin.
Iron Curtain Result of Potsdam; Churchill claims that Soviet's dropped a "curtain" of secrecy that couldn't be passed; kept their plans secret.
Containment Policy Based off of George Kennan(an American foreign advisor)'s Long Telegram(explaining how if you go ag Soviet's they'll never back down); he said if Soviets try to expand, Americans should reply with force.
Truman Doctrine(1947) Provides aid to those fighting in communist pressure; US sends $400 million to Greece and Turkey to fight communists.
Marshall Plan(1947) Sends billions of dollars and supplies to Western Europe hoping to ward off communist appeal and to spark trade
Arms Race Arms race is having more weapons than the other; Soviets and US going back and forth with bomb creations; Soviets-Atomic; US-H-bomb; Soviets-H-bomb; ends with NCS-68
NSC-68 Suggests to replace bombs with large amounts of weaponry; Thats how the arms race began.
Berlin Airlift(Berlin Crisis) US, Brit, and France combine zones in Berlin(West Germany); Soviets in East; Soviets cut of roads and railroads to West; US replies with Berlin Airlift; Delivers 2 million tons of supplies; VICTORY for US
NATO(1949)-North Atlantic Treaty Organization US and Western Euro vow to defend each other; Soviets respond with Warsaw Pact-Soviet Unions with satellites; alliance with Soviet's and satellite nations.
Chinese Civil War(1945-49) Communists-Mao Zedong; Nationalists-Chiang Kai-shek; Nationalists were corrupt b/c Chiang was stealing money; Commies win; Nationalists fled
Korean War(1950-53) Korea was divided at 38th parallel; soviets controlled north; democratically controlled and US supported south half.
Bay of Pigsban Castro takes over Cuba; CIA organizes Cuban exile missiles; US doesn't provide air support; fail for US and Kennedy.
Federal Employee Loyalty Program weeds out commies; 3.2 million people were investigated; 212 were dismissed as security risks; 2900 resigned voluntarily b/c they didn't like the invasion of privacy.
HUAC-House Committee on Un-American Activities Investigates communist influence in movie industry; made Nixon famous.
Hollywood 10 Did not want to be interviewed by HUAC, refused and were fired and blacklisted(1848).
Alger Hiss High ranking advisors under FDR; Whittaker Chambers(Soviet Spy) accused Alger Hiss of spying; Hiss denied accusations; Whittaker showed them film he kept in a pumpkin(pumpkin papers) and proved him guilty; Hiss was charged for perjury and was sent to jail
The Rosenbergs Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were accused of passing along info to USSR atomic bomb secrets; claimed innocent, convicted and executed for espionage; Later Venona papers found(1995) proving them guilty.
McCarthyism (R)claimed he knew of 200 communists working in State dept.; everytime he told diff cities the number of people would change; no hard evidence revealed
McCarthy's downfall Edward Murrow showed public on TV how McCarthy would just scream and accuse people; McCarthy went on the show to prove himself different; and showed the public exactly what Murrow accused him of; Dies of alcogolism in 1957.
New Look To reduce costs Eisenhower reduces army, and focuses on Air Force and Nuclear Bombs(he believed future war would be in the air)
Massive Retaliation/Brinkmanship Eisenhower promises to use nuclear weapons against any agressor nation; named Brinkmanship by critics.
Egypt They want $ to build a dam; take over Brit and French who owned Suez Canal to pay for it; Brit and French invade and force them into Soviet Camps.
Sputnik Space Race-similar to arms race; Soviet and US going back and forth, who was better at launching into space; 1957-Soviets launched Sputnik in which US was scared it would spy and shoot nukes so they created NASA in response.
U2 U2 planes were used to spy on missions over Soviet; Francis Gary Powers(U2 plan pilot) was shot down; cancels summit to discuss test ban treaty.
Created by: lindsaymarie14