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Virology Exam

OSU-CHS virology

Enveloped viruses Herpesviridae Hepadnarividae Poxiviridae Bunyavirus Orthomyoxoviruses Arenavirus Paramyxovirus Rabdovirus Filovirus Togavirus Flavivirus Coronavirus
Naked viruses DNA Parvoviridae Adenoviridae Papova viridae
Naked viruses RNA Reovirus Picornavirus Calicivirus
Gammaherpesvirinae Epstein-Barr Virus HHV-8 Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus dsDNA linear, icosohedral, enveloped, herpesviridae family
Enveloped dsDNA icosohedral virus that is linear? Herpesviridae family Alphaherpesvirinae HSV-1 HSV-2 Varcilla Zoster Monkey B virus
Enveloped linear, dsDNA icosohedral virus? Herpesvirdae family the Betaherpesvirinae: CMV HHV-6 and HHV-7
Adenovirus naked dsDNA linear, #3 common cold cause; acute or latent depending on host cell; resp,onjunctivitis, gastro, febrile pharyngitis fecal-oral, inhale, contact/ no antiviral; vaccinate military for types 4,7;
Adenovirus labs = PCR for typing, intranuclear inclusions virus E1A, E1B bind host pRB, p53 respectively; tough capsid; humans = only reservoir
Herpes Simplexvirus alphaherpesvirinae, envelop linear dsDNA, herpes labialis oral = cold sores; genital = mostly 2, prodromal tingling; "Hit & Run" cancer close contact/ cell-cell most people exposed to at least HSV1/
Herpes Simplexvirus treatment acyclovir, but no vaccine reside in ganglia of innervating neurons to skin; infant - HSV2; whitlow = finger infxn; asymptomatic carriers
Varicella alphaherpesvirinae-envelop linear dsDNA, chickenpox # 1 out of 5 childhood rashes. Spreads as aerosol,contact/ clinical diag of rash
Varicella treatment, vaccine high doses of acyclovir; VZIG-> passive immunity--incubtn = 14dd; more serious in adults who develop pneumonia;
Varicella-Zoster Virus alphaherpesvirinae envelop linear dsDNA chickenpox/varicella 1/5 childhood rashes; shingles = zoster; resp virus & viremic; aerosol, contact/ see varicella & zoster high doses of acyclovir; VZIG-> passive immunity; new vaccine @ 2y/old
Zoster alphaherpesvirinae envelop linear dsDNA shingles in adults aerosol,contact/ Tzank smear, IF high doses of acyclovir; severely painful rash at dermatome level, postherpetic neuralgia can develop
Arenavirus arenaviridae/envelop 2 circle ssRNA (- & +/-) zoonotic (robo); LCM, lassa, junin, machupo fevers inhale, food, fomites/ BSL3 containmt supportive therapy; ribavirin -> Lassa; avoid rodents & their urine/feces persistant->induce tolerance, infect Macs
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) betaherpesvirinae, enveloped linear dsDNA that rarely cause disease in immune competent; heterophile neg mononucleosis; congenital or perinatal (via colostrum)
CMV infxn close contact/PAP,lung biopsy-> owl eye inclusn; viral load by pp65; isoltn from urine; H&E. treatment: Gancyclovir = acyclovir analog w/ possible toxicity, TK -> drug resistance; Foscarnet->inhibit DNA polymerase, for gancyclovir resistance
Bunyavirus bunyaviridae (arbo)enveloped 3seg -ssRNA. Causes mild flu-like except: La Crosse, Rift valley, hantaan see diseases for specifics no Bunyavrius
California encephalitis virus bunyaviridae (arbo), envelop 3seg -ssRNA, causes febrile, encephalitis, rash.
California encephalitus virus Use virus neutrlzn assay (VN)& antiviral IgM see bunyavirus mosquito vector, forest rangers, campers, woodsmen
La Crosse virus bunyaviridae (arbo),envelop 3seg -ssRNA, causes encephalitis, fever, lethargy, vomiting, seizures; Check by viral Ag in blood; 7d incubation then sudden onset of symptoms, usually self-resolving
Rift valley fever virus bunyaviridae (arbo), envelop 3seg -ssRNA, etechial hemorrahages viral Ag in blood 50% mortality rate; endothelial cells disrupted -> bleeding
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus 65 bunyaviridae (arbo)
Nairovirus 60 bunyaviridae (arbo)
Phlebovirus 60 bunyaviridae (arbo)
Uukuvirus 60 bunyaviridae (arbo) No human disease
Hantaan virus 65 bunyaviridae (robo) envelop 3seg -ssRNA pulmonary syndrome Sin Nombre infects & persists in lungs contact w/ rodents, urine/ viral Ag in blood, IgM see bunyavirus; rodent control and wear mask cleaning; resp support leakage of blood thru vasculature of lungs -> pulmonary edema-> failure->death
Calicivirus caliciviridae, linear, +ssRNA/naked, see Norwalk-like virus
Norwalk-like Virus aka norovirus caliciviridae linear +ssRNA/naked viral-causes gastroenteritis (vomiting & diarrhea); fecal oral/ Ab in feces (IEM); serology & rtPCR no vaccines or antivirals; treat symptoms;
Hepatitis E enteric Non A, NonB hepatitis 89 Calicivirus (NWL) linear +ssRNA/naked enteric (like all hep, infect liver -> jaundice & disrupt AST & ALT) fecal-oral, water/ variable IgG like HAV except slower onset w/ higher mortality rates especially pregnant women
Coronavirus coronaviridae +ssRNA/enveloped #2 cause of common cold, SARS, some URT & gastroenteritis serology for acute vs convalescent, isolation difficult,no vaccines or antivirals for humans;developing SARS vaccine
SARS coronaviridae +ssRNA/enveloped severe respiratory illness w/ nonproductive cough & dyspnea large aerosol drops/ EIA, RTPCR Ribavarin, steroids etc; QUARANTINE travel to endemic area, temp > 100.5, Atypical resp infxn
Filovirus Filoviridae envelop -ssRNA Ebola, Marburg other Hemorrhagic fevers infect wide range of tissues/ LM, rtPCR, IgM,G no antiviral or vaccine/ QUARANTINE cytolytic viruses causing extensive tissue necrosis; inclusion bodies seen in LM
Hepatitis G Flaviviridae envelop+ssRNA NonA, NonB hepatitis differentiate from HCV w/ revtrans PCR; Elisa or RIA transmitted in blood (no capsid) chronic disease similar to HCV
Coronavirus helical nucleocapsid w/ glycoproteins for Largest RNA virus; civet cats host; grows best @low temp;most adults are seropositive
Yellow fever Flaviviridae (arbo) envelop +ssRNA jaundice &/or black blood (gastro hemorrhages attenuated vaccine, may be protective against other flavis no capsid; vaccine given to military & travelers
West Nile encephalitis Flaviviridae (arbo) envelop+ssRNA no human vaccines; may be developed no capsid
West Nile Virus Flaviviridae (arbo) envelop+ssRNA mild, nonspecific unless encephalitis IgM Elisa for CSF& serum self-limiting unless compromised mostly self-limiting, immunocompromised (age) risk factor, one serotype in NA
Flavivirus Flaviviridae (no capsid) envelop +ssRNA mostly mild except yellow fever, St Louis, west nile, HepC, HepG; SEE pg61 Chart for all diseases (toga&flavi) usually bite/ feces; rev trans PCR; sero: Elisa & hemagglut no antiviral, some vaccines; supportive care
Norwalk like virus diagnosis and outlook good hygiene and food cleaning self-limiting; 1-3d incub; capsid structure allows differentiation on EM
Hepatitis C Flaviviridae (no capsid) envelop+ssRNA 15% acute, 85% chronic; NonA, NonB hepatitis; infxn predisposes to 1 hepatocellular carcinoma infected blood, secretions etc/
Hepatitis C Elisa; viral load from PCR No vaccine; IFNa w/ Ribavarin persistent infxn-> PHC; coats itself in LDL or attaches to CD81 surface receptor
Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Hepadnaviridae; envelop DNA, durable; Causes acute (HBcAg) or chronic(HBs, HBeAg); chronic -> cirrhosis or w/ HDV -> fuminate or 80% of 1 hepatocellular carcinoma parenteral, sexual
Hepatitis B treatment INFa for chronic infxn; Entecavir; Telbivudine, vaccine for high risk, hepatitis from CMI & inflam, not cytopathic; acute: long incubtn, gradual onset; window
Alphaherpesvirinae herpesviridae; envelop linear dsDNA; Causes HSV 1&2, VZV; from close contact; incubation fast growing, latent in neuronal tissue, wide host & cell range
Betaherpesvirinae herpesviridae; envelop linear dsDNA; causes CMV, HHV 6 & 7; slow growing, latency in cells of immune system, slightly restricted host range
Gammaherpesvirinae herpesviridae ; envelop linear dsDNA; EBV
Herpesvirus herpesviridae; envelop linear dsDNA; HHV 1-8; subfamilies: alpha, beta, gammavirinae; tegument b/t capsid & envelope; capable of acute, latent, persistent infxn
Monkey B Virus Herpesviridae, alphaherpesvirinae; envelop linear dsDNA; simian version of HSV
Human Herpesvirus 8 (KSV - Kaposi's sarcoma herpes) Herpesviridae, gammaherpesvirinae envelop linear dsDNA ; Kaposi's- Bcell lymphoma; also causes Castleman's disease; Kaposi's occurs in AIDS pts; Castleman's
Hepatitis D (delta agent) not placed in a family; enveloped circular ssRN; NonA, NonB hepatitis; ->fulminate & massive necrosis-delta Ag; envelop has HBsAg no vaccine, no antiviral/ try to prevent HBV defective virus requiring HBV (chronic HBV then HDV -> superinfected)
Influenza A orthomyxoviridae; segmented (-)ssRNA; #1 viral killer in US; flu-like symptoms; see ortho; Zan-Relenza; Oseltamavir -Tamiflu (not prophylactic); antigenic drift & shift & reassortment causes new strains; resp diseases & encephalitis from aspirin
Influenza B orthomyxoviridae; segmented (-)ssRNA; see influ A ; primarily Human virus cause of 1 out of 4 hospitalizations as influA
Influenza C orthomyxoviridae; it is a segmented (-)ssRNA; no disease but 95% adults have Abs
Orthomyxovirus orthomyxoviridae; is a segmented (-)ssRNA; causes Influenza A,B,C (determine by HA, NA, M1&2
Measles diagnosis, treatment, and host Prevent with MMWR (live)/ clinical diag + MAB; passive immun -> compromised; no antivirals. humans are the host;
Orthomyxovirus information; enveloped, sphere or tube; complications pneumonia & Reye's; M
bird flu is an orthomyxoviridae H5N1; segmented (-)ssRNA; type of Influenza A bird -> human oseltamivir (Tamiflu) restricted human-human transmission
BK virus Papovaviridae; it is circular, dsDNA; kidney & urinary tract infections ubiquitous; no treatment; only get disease in immunocompromised
JC Virus Papovaviridae; is a circular, dsDNA; PML; ubiquitous; no treatment; only get disease in immunocompromised
Papillomavirus papoviridae naked circular dsDNA; HPVs causes warts, cervical carcinoma - depends on type; usually benign, selflimiting; direct contact; diagnose by PAP smear, PCR,
Papillomavirus vaccine developed; LN2 warts, laryngeal surgery, IFN injxn; nonpermissive cells -> oncogenesis (16,18)
Polyomavirus papoviridae naked circular dsDNA ; BK, PML (progressive focal leukoencephalopathy), SV40; not pathogenic in immune competent; enter via RT/ postmortem foci of demye; urine; PCR, Elisa, IF,DNA
Polyomavirus no antivirals, vaccine/ serious in immunosuppressed; most adults have it, but asymptomatic; BK: reactvtn of latent in kidney->severe UTI; JC/PML: reactvtn of latent-> viremia & CNS demyelintn; SV studied for vaccine
Mumps virus paramyxoviridae –pleomorphic; -ssRNA/enveloped; acute, benign parotits aerosols/ giant cells from fusion; live MMR; no antivrial/ isolate from saliva, urine, CSF; sero
Paramyxovirus paramyxoviridae –pleomorphic;-ssRNA/enveloped; see measles, mumps, parainflu, RSV; spreads by aerosols/ look for giant cells from fusion; Hendra - Australian animals; Nipah - Malaysia & Singapore fruit bats
Respiratory syncytial virus paramyxoviridae – pleomorphic;-ssRNA/enveloped fatal acute RT infxn in children; no hemagglutintn of RBCs; aerosol/ IF & Elisa; sero; vrial Ag; isolate; Ribavarin via nebulizer; passive immun for compromised-LRT infxn; zoonotic disease also
Measles /morbillivirus/ rubeola paramyxoviridae –pleomorphic; -ssRNA/eveloped measles -> pneumonia, encephalitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, CCC&P; atypical if killed vaccine; aerosols/ giant cells from fusion;
Measles/morbillivirus/rubeola causes maculopapular rash & Kopliks spots; replicate in RT but spreads thru blood -> disease; can spread cell-cell, avoids Abs
Created by: vpack87