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Micro Viruses

Dr O. Exam 3 Chapter 13

Bacteriophage (phage) Infect bacteria, no envelope, cannot reproduce independently, use host cell machinery, cause most of the world's disease, acellular, either DNA or RNA
Extracellular state of viruses Called viron, nucleic acid + protein coat = nucleocapsid, some have phospholipid envelope, outermost layer provides protection and recognition sites
Intracellular state of viruses No capsid, exists as nucleic acid
Isometric shape Nucleic acid surrounded by polyhedral shell or capsid (e.g. adenovirus)
Helical shape Ribbon like, has nucleic acid surrounded by hollow protein center or capsid
Complex shape Most phages, have polyhedral head, helical sheath or tail
Enzymes Viruses contain a few enzymes in their capsid (e.g. HIV has reverse transcriptase)
Capsids protein coats that provide protection for viral nucleic acid and means of attachment to host's cell
Capsomere Proteinaceous subunits, have multiple or single type
Viral envelope Acquired by host cell during viral replication, composed of phospholipid bilayer and proteins, some have spikes (virally coded glycoproteins) -> play role in host recognition
Replication of bacteria viruses Usually results in death and lysis of host cell via lytic replication, attaches to cell membrane then releases contents into cell
Lysogeny of bacteria viruses Modified replication cycle, infected host cells grown and reproduce before they lyse, occurs when virus alters phenotype
Prophages (bacteria viruses) inactive phages
Replication of Animal viruses releases contents of virus while completely inside host cell, chemical attraction, have glycoprotein spikes
Synthesis of Animal viruses DNA viruses enter nucleus, RNA viruses replicated in cytoplasm, + sense RNA acts as mRNA, Retroviruses have RNA dep. DNA polymerase
Enveloped viruses cause... persistent infections (keep on shedding viruses)
Naked viruses released by exocytosis or may cause lysis and death of host cell
Latency of animal viruses Dormancy may last for years with no viral activity, signs, or symptoms, when provirus gets incorporated into DNA = condition is permenant
Cytopathic effect Virus-induced cell changes, herpes = syncytium, rabies = negri bodies, Hep. B = ground glass liver cells
Virus' role in cancer May promote oncogenes but repressor kills it, or may bind to repressor not allowing it to kill oncogenes -> causing cancer to develop
Examples of DNA and RNA viruses causing cancer Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS pts), cervical cancer (HPV), DNA viruses are most deadly
Culturing viruses Must use tissue(isolated from organism or grown in broth or medium) diploid or continuous, embryonated chicken eggs
Prions Proteinaceous infectious agents, shaped depends of impact of prion
Characteristics of Prions Composed of single protein PrP, involve fatal neurological degeneration, form large vacuoles in brain, spongiform encephalopathies, destroyed by incineration or autoclave
Genome exchange Point mutation = antigenic drift (minor), genetic exchange = antigenic shift (major)
Teratogenesis Induction of defects during embryogenic development
Teratogen Drug or agent that induces teratogenic defects, rubella and cytomegalovirus = congenital infection and sever congenital abnormalities
Adenoviridae Naked, transmission=respiratory, close contact, fecal-oral, disease=3rd most common cause of cold
Hepadnaviridae Enveloped, transmission=body fluids, blood, perinatal, disease=Hep. B (Serum Hepatitis), cirrhosis, liver cancer, chronic carriers
TORCH T=Toxoplasmosis O=Others (Syph, Varicella, Hep. B, HIV, Parvo B19) R=Rubella C=Cytomegalovirus H=Herpes simplex
Kaposi's sarcoma Caused by HHS-8, sex transmitted, targets vascular epithelial cells, in immunodeficient individuals
Mastadenovirus Naked, causes common cold -> 3rd most common cause
Hepadnavirus Envelope, causes Hep. B (serum hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer), chronic symptoms
HHV-1 (simplex) Causes cold sores, latent infection in nerve ending
HHV-2 (simplex) Sexually transmitted, causes genital and neonatal herpes (TORCH)
HHV-3 (varicella zoster) Causes chickenpox and shingles
HHV-4 (epstein-barr) Causes mono (kissing disease), burkitt's lymphoma (b lymph tumors), and hotchkin's lymphoma
HHV-5 (cytomegalovirus) Owl eye in intracell inclusion, causes mono, TORCH
Roseola virus (cyto) Causes infantile exanthem subitum (6th) re bumpy rash
HHV-8 (cyto) Targets vascular endothelial cells, causes Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients
Created by: reeseochoa