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CJU: Ch 1 Vocab


Adjudication The process of determining whether the defendant is guilty.
Arrest The physical taking of a person into custody on the grounds that there is reason to believe that he or she has committed a criminal offense. The purpose of the arrest is to hold the accused for a court proceeding.
Crime control model A model of the CJU system that assumes freedom is so important that every effort must be made to repress crime; it emphasizes efficiency, speed, finality, and the capacity to apprehend, try, convict, and dispose of a high proportion of offenders.
Discretion The authority to make decisions without reference to specific rules or facts, using instead one’s own judgment; allows for individualization and informality in the administration of justice.
Discrimination Differential treatment of individuals or groups based on race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or economic status, instead of on their behavior or qualifications.
Disparity A difference between groups that may either be explained by legitimate factors or indicate discrimination.
Dual court system A system consisting of a separate judicial structure for each state in addition to a national structure. Each case is tried in a court of the same jurisdiction as that of the law or laws broken.
Due process model A model of the CJU system that assumes freedom is so important that every effort must be made to ensure that CJU decisions are based on reliable info; it emphasizes the adversarial process, the rights of defendants, and formal decision-making procedures.
Exchange A mutual transfer of resources: a balance of benefits and deficits that flow from behavior based on decisions about the values and costs of alternatives.
Federalism A system of government in which power is divided between a central (national) government and regional (state) governments.
Felonies Serious crimes usually carrying a penalty of death or incarceration for more than one year.
Filtering process A screening operation; a process by which criminal justice officials screen out some cases while advancing others to the next level of decision making.
Indictment A document returned by a grand jury as a “true bill” charging an individual with a specific crime on the basis of a determination of probable cause as presented by a prosecuting attorney.
Information A document charging an individual with a specific crime. It is prepared by a prosecuting attorney and presented to a court at a preliminary hearing.
Misdemeanors Offenses less serious than felonies and usually punishable by incarceration of no more than a year, probation, or intermediate sanction.
Plea bargain a negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge and the prosecutor agrees to drop a more serious charge
System A complex whole consisting of interdependent parts whose actions are directed toward goals and are influenced by the environment within which they function.
Warrant A court order authorizing police officers to take certain actions, for example, to arrest suspects or to search premises.
Created by: mylifewow