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The American Pageant

Vocabulary: Chapter 26

QuestionAnswer
Populist Party A political group which began to emerge in 1891. They gained much support from farmers who turned to them to fight political unfairness. They used a progressive platform. They were also known as the People's Party
Long Drive Cattle ranchers needed a way to easily transport their cattle to eastern cities. Cowboys would round up a lot of cattle and "drive" them to areas near railroad stations - Most of these drives went from southern Texas up to Kansas
Homestead Act Passed in 1862, stated that a settler could acquire up to 160 acres of land and pay a minimal fee of $30.00 just for living on it for five years and settling it. A settler could acquire it for only six months and pay $1.25 an acre.
Granger Laws In the 1800's the Grange, strove to regulate railway rates and storage fees charged by railroads, warehouses, and grain elevators through state legislation. These laws that were passed, but eventually reversed, are referred to as the Granger Laws.
Farmers' Alliance This led to the creation of the Populist party. The Farmers' Alliance sponsored social gatherings, were active in politics, organized cooperatives, and fought against the dominance of the railroads and manufacturers.
Sioux Wars Lasting from 1876-1877, these were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men;. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians.
Apache Native American-Indian tribe; 1870's; group from Arizona and New Mexico led by Geronimo were difficult to control; chased into Mexico by Federal troops; they became successful farmers raising stock in Oklahoma
Ghost Dance A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
Battle of Wounded Knee A group of white Christian reformist tried to bring Christian beliefs on to the Indians. While camped outside of an Indian reservation a gun was fired and the troops stormed the reservation killing Indian men, women, and children
Dawes Severalty Act 1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
Comstock Lode In 1859, A great amount of gold and silver was discovered in Nevada. The "Fifty-Niners" rushed to Nevada in their own hopes of getting rich, which caused Nevada to become a state. It provided three electoral votes for President Lincoln
Geronimo Leader of the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico, fought against the white man, who was trying to force the Apaches off of their land. Geronimo had an enormous hatred for the whites. He was, however, eventually pushed into Mexico where he surrendered
James B. Weaver He was chosen as the presidential candidate of the Populist Party. He was a Granger with an apt for public speaking. He only ended up getting three percent of the popular votes which is really a large number for a third party candidate
Oliver H. Kelly Kelly was the National Grange's leading spirit. Kelly had picnics, musical events, and lectures trying to appeal to enough of the farm people to reach his goals of self-improvement.
Mary Elizabeth Lease A speaker for the Populist Party. She made numerous memorable speeches on behalf of the downtrodden farmer. She denounced the money-grubbing government and encouraged farmers to speak their discontent with the economic situation.
Sitting Bull One of the leaders of the Sioux tribe. He was a medicine man "as wily as he was influential." He became a prominent Indian leader during the Sioux Wars from 1876-1877
Chief Joseph He was chief of the Nez Perce Indians of Idaho. People wanting gold trespassed on their beaver river.Chief Joseph tried retreating to Canada with his people. They were cornered 30 miles from safety and he surrendered in 1877.
George A. Custer A U.S. Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian wars. He was defeated and killed at the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876, against a group of Indian tribes This has come to be popularly known as Custer’s Last Stand.
Helen Hunt Jackson A U.S. writer best known for Ramona, a novel about the ill treatment of Native Americans in southern California. Jackson was admittedly influenced by Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin
William F. Cody “Buffalo Bill”, an American soldier, bison hunter and showman. He was one of the most colorful figures of the Old West, and mostly famous for the shows he organized with cowboy themes
William “Coin” Hope Harvey A U.S. teacher, businessman, author, and politician. Many of his ideas became the basis for the American Populist Party. He wrote Coin's Financial School, a pamphlet written in 1893 that helped popularize the free silver and populist movements.
Frederick Jackson Turner A U.S. historian who wrote the “Frontier Thesis”. In it he stated that the spirit and success of the United States was directly tied to the country's westward expansion
Jacob S. Coxey a socialist U.S. politician, he led Coxey’s Army in 1894 , bands of unemployed men, on marches to Washington, D.C. to demand that the U. S. Congress make money to create jobs for the unemployed.
Eugene V. Debs A U.S. union leader and socialist, Debs was involved and later imprisoned for his part in the famed Pullman Strike, when workers struck the Pullman Palace Car Company over a pay cut.
William McKinley He was the 25th President of the U.S. his signature issue was high tariffs on imports as a formula for prosperity, as typified by his McKinley Tariff of 1890. He upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups.
Marcus Alonzo Hanna A U.S. industrialist and Republican politician. He rose to fame as the campaign manager of the successful Republican Presidential candidate, William McKinley, in the U.S. Presidential election of 1896
William Jennings Bryan The Democratic nominee for President of the U. S. in 1896. Bryan was a supporter of popular democracy, a critic of banks and railroads, a leading figure in the Democratic Party, and one of the most prominent leaders of Populism.
Buffalo Soldiers A nickname originally applied to the members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, which was comprised of African-Americans, by the Native American tribes they fought
Safety Valve Theory A theory about how to deal with unemployment which gave rise to the Homestead Act of 1862. Making free land available in the west, would relieve pressure for employment in the east.
Bonanza Farms Large farms in the U. S. that performed large-scale operations, mostly growing and harvesting wheat.
National Grange A fraternal organization for U.S. farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good.
Colored Farmers' National Alliance Colored Farmers' National Alliance and Cooperative Union was formed in the 1880s in the USA, when both black and white farmers faced great difficulties due to the rising price of farming and the decreasing profits which were coming from farming.
Cross of Gold Speech Colored Farmers' National Alliance and Cooperative Union was formed in the 1880s in the USA, when both black and white farmers faced great difficulties due to the rising price of farming and the decreasing profits which were coming from farming.
Dingley Tariff 1897; introduced by U.S. Representative Nelson Dingley, raised tariffs in the U.S. to counteract the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, which had lowered rates. Under the Act, tariff rates reached a new high, averaging 46.5%, and in some cases, up to 57%
Gold Standard Act Passed in 1900; established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism (which had allowed silver in exchange for gold). It was signed by President William McKinley.
Nez Perce Indian Tribe lead by Chief Joseph.
Little Big Horn Custer's Last Stand, it was a battle between combined forces of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho people against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army.led by several major war leaders, Crazy Horse, inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull
The Sooner States Oklahoma's nickname is “The Sooner State”.Indian Territory was opened to settlers. Some people went in (frontier) early (before officially open) to claim their land. They became known as Sooners.
Coin’s Financial School pamphlet written in 1893 that helped popularize the free silver and populist movements, the author of the text "Coin" was William Hope Harvey.
Coxey’s Army Coxey's Army was a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey
Pullman’s Strike May 11 when 3,000 employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company began a wildcat strike in response to recent reductions in wages, The American Railway Union, led by Eugene V. Debs.President Cleveland ordered federal troops to Chicago to end the strike
Gold Bugs a person who opposes or criticizes the use of fiat currency and supports a return to the use of the Gold Standard or some other currency system based on the value of gold and other hard assets
“16 to 1” To Silver Democrats, federal coinage of silver (at a weight ratio of 16 ounces to 1 ounce of gold, hence the slogan "16 to 1") was a moderate solution to the currency problem
“fourth party system” period in American political history from about 1896 to 1932 that was dominated by the Republican party, excepting the 1912 split in which Democrats held the White House for eight years
Joseph F. Glidden 1874 invented a superior type of barbed wire and in 1883 the company was producing 600 miles of the product each day; the barbed wire was used against trespassing cattle
Patrons of Husbandry The Patrons of Husbandry was a group organized in 1867, their leader was Oliver H. Kelley. It was known as the Grange. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.
Created by: smccahon