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Political Science

Exam 1: The American Political System

QuestionAnswer
conflict, competition, cooperation, community characteristics of politics and democracy in America
what democracy and the Bill of Rights have protected minority rights
the will of the larger proportion of the population majority rule
bending to will of majority who want to enrich themselves; majority rule v. minority rights excessively democratic
citizens vote on most issues themselves (California) direct democracy
U.S. system of government; election of representatives who vote on issues indirect democracy
power flows from a variety of different sources; emphasizes Montesquieu's ideals Pluralist Theory
"man is rational by nature" Plato
vertical division of power between national and state governments in which each part directly enforces its laws on the people and neither can change the arrangement federalism
obstruction of action, frustration of national policy, and obstruction of uniformity in policy problems of federalism
Protection of liberty, decentralization, increased participation, improvement of efficiency, ensure's policy innovation, manages conflict importance of federalism
over how many governments are in the US 87,000
type of intergovernmental relation that does not exist in the constitution state-local
under federalism, the 3 types of intergovernmental relations nation-state, state-state, state-local
"government should rule in accordance with Truth" Plato
wrote "The Republic" Plato
"man must participate directly in government" Aristotle
"government should be a virtuous republic" Aristotle
wrote "Politics" Aristotle
"man is willing to submit to a social contract" Locke
"government should secure Liberty" Locke
wrote "Two Treatises of Government" Locke
"man should be concerned with the concentration of power" Montesquieu
"government should secure Liberty by separation of power" Montesquieu
wrote "The Spirit of the Laws" Montesquieu
"ideal form of government could be discovered through the exercise of human reason" Plato
described the nation-state as consisting of a hierarchy Plato
"Law, based on custom and tradition, has no place in government." Plato
father of political science Aristotle
"man is political by nature Aristotle
categorized governments as good or bad depending on who benefited from the government's actions Aristotle
explicitly states the Constitution's principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the states by the Constitution of the United States are reserved to the states or the people. 10th amendment
"Man in not political by nature; consent to government to protect rights (Social Contract)" Locke
"power concentrated is oppressive" Montesquieu
population, territory, permanence, political organization, sovereignty elements of a state
has existed and continues to exist permanence
(1) supreme political authority, (2) capable of enforcing authority (compulsory), (3) relatively free from outside interference sovereignty
abolished slavery 13th amendment
amendment that added a Citizenship Clause, Due Process clause, and Equal Protection Clause 14th amendment
part of 14th amendment that broadened the definition of citizenship to include blacks citizenship clause
the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were drafted because of what event civil war
Decentralization, autonomy, powerful state legislators, and sovereignty were characteristics of _________ __________ under the Articles of Confederation. the states
Simplicity and limited power were the characteristics of ____ _________ __________ under the Articles of Confederation. the national government
Unicameral, simplicity, and limited power were the characteristics of _________ under the Articles of Confederation. Congress
could not tax, draft military, control interstate commerce, and took unanimous vote to amend Articles of Confederation limitations on national government
unstable environments and lack of funds to national government problems under the Articles of Confederation
Massachusetts; disadvantaged farmers and slaves revolted; led to the Philadelphia Convention Shay's Rebellion
What is the structure of a confederacy? decentralization and power lies with the states
What is a contemporary example of a confederacy? U.N. and E.U.
plan that proposed bicameral Congress apportioned by population and equal representation Virginia Plan
plan that proposed a unicameral Congress based solely on equal representation New Jersey Plan
the plan that combined some of the ideas from the Virginia and New Jersey Plans Connecticut Compromise
What were the characteristics of the Connecticut Compromise? bicameral Congress and 3/5 rule
Most common system of government; central government has control over states. Example is England. Unitary System
2/3 vote in congress --> voted on by legislature of 3/4 of states usual method for passing amendments
2/3 vote in congress --> voted on by conventions in 3/4 of states method used once for passing amendments
national convention called by congress by the request of 2/3 of states --> voted on by either legislature of 3/4 of states or conventions of 3/4 of states method never used to pass amendments
importation of slaves could not be prohibited prior to 1808, but a tax/duty could be imposed Commerce Compromise
group of essays written in support of ratification of the Constitution Federalist Papers
What was the pseudonym the Federalists used? Publius
Who were the Federalists who wrote the Federalist papers? Jay, Hamilton, and Madison
popular sovereignty, republicanism, separation of powers, Federalism, limited government, checks & balances, supremacy of national law, a dynamic constitution elements of a liberal republic
the people hold supreme power; political equality popular sovereignty
representative form of government republicanism
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 10th amendment
Amendment that prohibited each government in the US from denying citizens the right to vote based on the citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". 15th amendment
Amendment that allows congress to levy an income tax. 16th amendment
clause of the 14th amendment to prohibit state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness. Due Process
clause of the 14th amendment that requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction. Equal Protection Clause
grants branches of government some authority over other branches checks and balances
Constitution -> Congress -> state -> local (hierarchy of laws) supremacy of national law
What are the two types of Constitution? liberal and restrictive
What is another name for liberal Constitution? dynamic constitution
general terms that broadly structures government and leaves the rest to legislature liberal constitution
detailed language that specifies all details too branches of government restrictive constitution
cannot suspend writ of habeus corpus, cannot pass expost facto, cannot issue bill of attainder limitations on national government
cannot coin own money or enter into treaties with foreign nations limitations on state government
judicial review; writ of mandamus; John Marshall Marbury v. Madison
obstruct action; segregation; government took away funding to states that would not desegregate Brown v. Board of Education
Supreme Court case that established implied powers for Congress McCulloch v. Maryland
The article of the constitution that includes: * prohibitions of the national and state governments, * the enumerated/"expressed" powers of the government, and * the necessary and proper / elastic clause Article I
The article of the constitution that explains the presidency and electoral college. Article II
The article of the constitution that: establishes one supreme court and allows congress to create additional courts. Article III
The article of the constitution that 1) lays out how states interact, 2) includes the "full faith and credit" clause, and 3) contains the privileges and immunities clause Article IV
The article of the constitution that explains the amendment process. Article V
The article of the constitution that has the Supremecy Clause. Article VI
The article of the constitution that explains ratification of the constitution. Article VII
clause that gives congress implied powers necessary and proper clause
clause in which each state must recognize the public acts of other states full faith and credit clause
clause requiring states to provide citizens of other states the same rights as their own citizens privileges and immunities clause
What amendment is the Reservation Clause found in? 10
makes the Constitution the "Law of the Land" Supremacy Clause
Created by: sm1696