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SGU: Cell Organelles

Histology: Cellular Organelles

QuestionAnswer
What is a ribosome composed of? ribosomal RNA (2 subunits) and associated proteins
Function of ribosome: protein synthesis
What kind of proteins do RER ribosomes make? proteins with an ER signal sequence
Function of ER: lipid and protein biosynthesis
Unique properties of ER: membrane folds give ER greater surface area than PM, ER membrane continuous with nuclear membrane at specific sites
In what cells is the RER abundant? cells specialized in protein synthesis such as secretory cells
What is a polyribosome? many ribosome bound to a single mRNA molecule and attached to the ER membrane
What kind of proteins are translated in the RER? those with an ER signal sequence
What cells have abundant SER? cells specialized in lipid metabolism, ie. steroid secretory cells, cells involved in detoxification, ie hepatocytes, muscle cells that sequester Ca2+
Function of Golgi? post-translational modification, sorting and packaging of proteins
Where does glycosylation of proteins occur? golgi
What cells have a well developed Golgi? plasma cells: secrete antibodies, Pancreatic acinar cells: secrete digestive enzymes
Where do proteins for post translational modification enter in the golgi? cis face
What kind of processing occurs in the golgi? oligosaccharides are processed in Golgi, proteoglycans are assembled in the golgi, proteins and lipids are sorted and ext the TGN
exit in the golgi? trans face
What is the function of coatomer-coated vesicles? mediate bidirectional traffic between ER and Golgi
What direction are COP1 coated vesicles? retrograde
What direction are COPII coated vesicles? antergrade
What are the three pathways with respect to the golgi and lysosome? constitutive secretory pathway, regulated secretory pathway and lysosomal pathway
What are the 3 types of granules in neutrophils? azurophilic, specific and tertiary
Describe the neutrophil azurophilic granules: large, dense, contain: peroxidase, defensins, lysozyme, lysosomal enzymes
Describe peroxidase generates highly reactive bactericidal hypochlorite and chloramines to kill bacteria and pathogens
Describe defensins small cation proteins that bind to microbial cell membranes and form pores
Describe lysozyme bactericidal agent, attach peptidoglycans in cell walls
Describe neutrophil specific granules small, less dense, contains:lysozyme, lactoferrin, complement activators, collagenase, phospholipase
What is Lactoferrin? antimicrobial agent
Describe tertiary granules of neutrophils contain phosphatases and metalloproteinases.
What is the function of the neutrophil? phagocytosis and exocytosis
Describe the inside of a lysosome 40 types of hydrolytic enzymes all of which are acid hydolases, very low pH (4.7)
Function of lysosome? controlled intracellular digestion of macromolecules.
What is the covalent modification of lysosomal hydrolases? covalently modified by the addition of mannose 6 phosphate in Golgi
How does the golgi know to transfer lysosomal hydrolases to the lysosome? M6P receptor in golgi
Describe Tay-Sachs disease. Accumulation of gangliosides because of a defect that affects lysosomal hydrolases
What are the 3 pathways to lysosomal degradation? phagocytosis, endocytosis, autophagy
What is the function of peroxisomes? compartmentalize and degrade toxic ROS, contains catalase and peroxidases
What is the function of catalase? converts H202 into H2O & O2
Where are peroxisomes important? hepatocytes-detoxification of ingested alcohol, fat metabolism
Where are plasmalogens formation begin? in peroxisomes
What is the importance of plasmalogens? myelin phopholipid
Describe Zellweger syndrome deficiencies caused by profound abnormalities in myelination of nerve cells
Where are peroxisomal proteins made? free ribosomes
How are peroxisomal proteins targeted to peroxisome? targeted by proxisomal targeting signal at C terminus
What non-membrane bound substances are found in the cell? glycogen, lipid
What other membrane bound inclusions are in the cell? pigments
Describe lipofucsin brownish-gold, seen in non-dividing cells, conglomerate of lipids, metals, organic molecules
Describe hemosiderrin brown, iron-storage commplex in cytoplasm, formed by indigestible residues of hemoglobin (found in spleen)
Function of mitochondria generate ATP by citric acid cycle, oxidative phophorylation, beta-oxidation of fatty acids
Where are mitochondria abundant cells that expend lots of energy: striated muscle
How are mitochondria derived evolutionarily and embryologically? primitive eukaryotic cell with circular dsDNA, it is maternally derived
What genes are found in the mito dsDNA? 13 oxidative phosphorylation genes, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs
What is found in the outer membrane of mito? porins, phospholipase, acetyl CoA synthase
Function of the inner membrane of mito? oxidation reaction: ETC, synthesize ATP, regulate metabolite transport into and out of the matrix
What is found in the intermembrane space of the mito? enzymes that use ATP generated by the inner membrane:creatine kinase, adenylate kinase, cytochrome c
What is the function of the matrix of the mito? oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids, citric acid cycle, storage of divalent cations
Created by: mnoronha