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Africa & Middle East

People, places and things related to Africa and the Middle East

Afghanistan Kabul
Algeria Algiers
Jomo Kenyatta 1940s- Founds Kenya African National Union. Prez of Kenya. W- capitalism. Pan-Africanism.
Kenya African National Union Focuses on economic issues. Seeks Independence for Kenya.
Mau Mau Movement Kenya. Kikuyu people using terroism to get uhuru from British. Causes alarm and promises.
Uhuru Freedom
Wafd Egypt. Formal political party to promote Egypt independence.
King Farouk Egypt. Overthrown by army coup (1952). Indept. republic instead. Intellectuals as opposed to monarcy as colonial rule.
Egypt Wafd. King Farouk. Intellectuals fickle.
Kenya Mau Mau movement. Kikuyutribe.Terrorism. After WW2- lotta Brits leave Br b/c too depressing, go to Kenya. Jews too. Kenyatta- W-capitalism. Big middle class, but high unemployment- so lots below poverty line. unhappyness.
South Africa European settlers dominate. Form African National Congress (ANC). Apartheid. Caste system. Whites. Mixed. Blacks. Opressed.After imprisonment and a lot of world pressure, Mandela becomes president b/c after Zimbabwe goes- too hard. deKlerk gives it to Man
African National Congress South Africa. INtellectuals start. Little support. Equality. Reforms. Mandela-leader.
Apartheid segretation of blacks and whites. Blacks rebel- brutally repressed.
Nelson Mandela leader of ANC, arrested in 1962. Arrest>armed resistance. Elected as prez of S. Africa, after campaigning against apartheid. Unity.
Algeria Arabs fighting for indept. de Gaulle lets go. 1962-indept. Colons are trying to keep control. Such an issue in homeland- almost civil war. Degaulle just lets go of.
Tunisia wins indept from France in 1956 b/c of Algeria struggle.
Morocco wins indept from France in 1956 b/c of Algeria struggle.
Ghana Old Gold Coast. Kwame Nkrumah. President.African Socialism. Big Man Rule. (Nkrumah.)
Mozambique/Angola Portuguese colonies. Given indept. After brutal guerilla wars.Freemelo (revoltion group). Swapo- get Soviet support.
General Mobutu Sese Seko Zaire/DR Congo. W. capitalism. Leader. Dictator.
DR Congo/ Zaire Mobuto Sese Seko- W-capitalism. Dictator. Favors the N. Muslim tribes> civil war- Katanga- copper minds want to break away. Lumba- leader w/ Katanga. Rwand troubles bleed in. Kabilla takes over.
Sékou Touré Guinea. African Socialism. Pan-Africanism.
Guinea Sékou Touré. African Socialism.
Tanzania Julius Nyerere. African Socialism. Nyerere sets up colectives, low levels of corruption and instability.
Julius Nyerere Tanzania. African Socialism.
Organization of African Unity Founded by 32 African leaders in 1963. Dream of Pan-Africanism. Reduce W. influence.
Pan-Africanism Unity of all black Africans regardless of national boundaries.
Negritude Blackness. Belief of Pan-Africanism.
Uganda Lots of resources. "Pearl of Africa". Can't keep stable. Like Argentina- so close and yet..1966- President Milton Obote names Idi Amin in charge of army. 1951- siezes control and rules w/ iron fist. Wastes money on luxuries. Arab plane, israeli rescue tak
Idi Amin 1951- takes control of Uganda. Secret police. Iron fist rule. Ruins economy w/ luxuries. Big man rule. "Mein Kamph". Rapes 100s of women. Father of future generation. Secret Torture chamber. Calls church leader to "tea". Forces amry to invade Tanzania, fl
Liberia Dependence on rubber exports ruins economy. Child/Boy soldiers. Freestate. People w/ Power. Br and Us support, people not from tribes>resentment>civil war and military rule.
Nigeria oil export dependence. Civil war- N. killing Ibo people, flee to E part where Odumegu-Ojukwu organizes Ibos, decalres E. Biafra. After 3 years- bloody Biagran Civil war- surrender. Used boy soldiers and desertification.Added Muslim population..
Wabenzi Mercedes Benz people. Rich w/ lavish lifestyles.
Angola Soviet-style Marxism-Leninism.
Ethiopia Societ-style Marxism-Lenisn. Solski. Meninstsu. Dragged into Cold War politics. Soviets influence. Solski pro-west, supply military and Menists take over.
Ibo Natives of E. Nigeria. Attacked by N.ers - retreat to E. Create own home state of Biafra- after 3 years of bloody war- surrunder.
Biafra Nigeria. State that Ibos and Colonel Odumegu-Ojukwu establish w/ Ibo people are being persecuted.
Colonel Odumegu-Ojukwu- Nigeria. Head of whol Ibo/Biafra mess.
Zimbabwe Ethnic conflic.1 party rule- white minority.Once Rodisia. Want to keep white pople rule. Ian Smith- keeps wealthy white sin power. 1970s- being to protest single party. Devestment. Smith resigns- Mugabe- keeps whites in charge. Dictatorial. Poor people on
Rwanda Hutus and Tutsis. Hutu rampage leaves .5 million TUtsis dead. Hutus larger, Tutsis the rich minority. Resentment- leader of Tutsis killed Hutus go wild. Tribal warfare.
Afrikons S. Africa and Dutch. Mixed. White, but not- don't really have a homeland. Somtimes encourage prejudice. Don't quite have any home.
Big Man Rule Dictatorship. Makes his tribe "the" tribe. Brutal. Ethnic Cleansing.
African Issues No experience w/ democracy. Corruption. Arbitrary borders. Military expenses.Desertification. Cashcrop economy. Population growth. AIDS.
Desertification spread of Sahara into Sudan. Displacing people. Major drought area. Fills up other areas. Muslims going into Christian/Animalistic Areas.
Madagascar Indian/Arabic population from trade.
E Coast INdian mostly. From trade. Middle class, forced to leave, ruins economy.
Baby Faye 1970s. Transplants baboon's heart. Works and then rejects. Like W. institutions.
1 party states. Kenya. Ghana. Zimbabwe. Uganda.
Somalia Pro-west. Soviets supply different warloards. Take over> civil war.
Ujamaa family hood/ African socialims. Growth of industry thwarts.
Chad and Sudan civil war. N/Muslim/nomadic populaiton and Christian/animalistic in cities and control the governemnt. Resent and Soviets supply teh Muslims>civil war.
Ian Smith Zimbabwe. White dictator. Keeps white rich rule. Overthrown in 1979. Resigns.
Robert Mugabe Zimbabwe. promises to keep whites in charge. People begin squatting- refuses to let them leave. The whites.
Lesotho and Swaziland reservations. Diff tribes.
Namibia colony of S Africa, who invades when thinks is going to black rule. German colony- upper class is traditional German dress.
Zionist Movement 1899. Desire for Jewish State. T. Herzl.
T. Herzl starts Zionism movement.
Husayn-McMahon Letters 1915-1916. Arab/British. Promises of an Arab state.
Sykes-Picot Agreements 1916. French-Br. Sets up the Mandate System. Split up Land between them two.
Balfour Declartion Br- need Jewish support- Irish rebelling- make vague statement about Jewish homeland.
Druze broke away from main-stream Muslim. Get more rights in Jewish States.
General Arab Strike 1936. Protest what is happeneing. New culture. Against Br. Br write white paper and slow immigration.
Haganah moderate, Jewish defensive group.
Irgun agressive militanat Jewish devensive group.
Lehi militia Jewish defense group. More agressive.
UN Partition Plan UN splits up Palestine. 1947.
Arab-Israeli War 5/15/1948. Arab League invades..
David Ben-Gurion proclaims Israeli a state 5/4/1948.
Egypt Not Arab state, but Farouk (36) supports the Arabs. Sends troops agains Israel. Nasser comes into charge. Republic. Suez Canal.
Nasser Egypt. Takes over after Farouk. Supports arabs. Reforms. Nationalizes Zuez Canal. >Suez War. Arab Socialism. Natinoalizes the Aswam High Dam, US gets mad- stops aid and USSR steps in.
Suez War 1956. B/c Egypt Nationalizes the canal. THem agains Fr. and Br.
AIW- Palestineans flee Massacre (dier yassun). Women and Children. Vans goings around. Terror.
Dier Yassun Part of Irgun. Massacres women and children. Leads to Palestineans fleeing. Massive terror.
Law of Return Any Jews granted citizenship in Israel. Arab countries expel teh Jews.
Suez-Sinai War Egypt Nationalizes Dam and Seuz. Br and Fr and Israel all freel threatned- so attacks Sinai. All angry at them. US tells Israel to give back. Causes Pan-Arabism and UAR.
United Arab Republic 1958-1962. Caused by SSW. Egypt and Syria - Jordon doesn't want part. Syria doesn't want to be underdog.
Brinksmanship Nasser. Pushing the envelope.
Six Day War 1967. June 5. Nassar's brinkmanship of blocking Gulf of Aquaba. Fails. Troops blocking harbor, Israel attacks. Wipes out airforce. Spins and attacks Jordan/Sytria too. Gains Golan, W. Ban, Sinai. Hostipe population.
Palestinean Liberation Organization PLO. From Pan-Africanism. No Jews in Palestine. Guerilla movement- alFatah- lead by Arafat. Diehards take over. Munich Olympics 1972. Uganda Airline. Jordan 3 plans blow up. Lebanon support in refugee camps.
Fatah part of PLO. More radical. Terrorist attacks on Israel. Lead by Arafat. People turn to this when govt. not working.
Arafat Leader of Fatah. Radical part of PLO. Rather moderate leader. Wants peace. Sell-out. Losing power.
Sadat Takes over after Nassar. Wants peace treaty. Tries Unity. KNows needs peace for making Egypt big.
Camp David Accords Carter. Begin (Israel's Prime Minister). Carter too. Peace between Egypt and Israel.
intifada Rising unrest in PLO. Skating off. Beginning of P. uprising. Youth no jobs. Not necessarily terrorist. World gives support. Fighting for future.
Madrid Talks 1992. Public. Palest and Israel embroked by the UN.
Oslo Accords secret. 2 moderate rulers ready for peace.
Rabeen labor party. Moderate. Israel. Ready for peace. Assassinated b/c sold out.
242: UN: Land for Peace Give land for guarentees of peace. Doesn't really work.
Moshe-Dyan Israel. Doesn't trust Egypt. Rejects offer. B/c Sadat changes tune again. Attacks and invades.>Yom Kippur War.
Yom Kippur War 1973. Surprise attack. Backfires and turns Israelis off to peace. All concentrated and beat Arabs. Angry at lack of prep.
Golda Mier prime minister of Israel. Peoplea ngry at her for lack of preparation.
Oil Crisis Oil Embargo. Stagflation. Carter. Saudi-Arabi- most oil. Use oil prices as a weapon for US to back down Israel support. Libya gets rich off oil.
Palestine Authority 1993. Gaza Strip. West Bank agrea. Israel has foreign power. Palestine domestic.
Hamas and other radicals step up on terrorism. Angry at both sides for selling out. Rival to PLO.
Likud vs. Labour Likud- conservative- makes stuff worse. Labour- socialist, moderate- makes changes for better.
Religious situation Some want secular. Some want conservative union of state and religion. Mainstream and old jews. All mixing.
Settlements Israel putting people on oldP. Land. Colectives. Do go thing. Infastructure. Colonizing.
Lebanon Civil War Civil war from refugees. Suni Muslims. Shiite Muslimes. Marinite Christians. All want power. I back Suni and Christian. Syria and PLo support Shiite. Biig mess. Peace from UN.
Iran big oil crisis. use prices as weapon to abandon support.Connection w/ W. w/ Shah Pahlavi. Brutal. Largely Shiites. Aruges w/ Iraq. A lot.
S'vak Shah Pahlavi's secret police.
Shah Pahlavi Iran. In power w/ US help. Corrupt. Oil. Things better.
The Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini Iran. Poeople look to. Comes to power after Pahlavi. Anti-West. Reinstates traditional stuff. Veil. Fundamentalism. Massive commi/homo killing. Teocracy. Fundamentalism.
Afghanistan Fundamentalism spreads and teh USSR invades. US funds the Taliban for fighting USSR. Unequality for women.
Hussein Iran refuguee in Iraq. Ba'ath party. Socialist. Goes against Shiites in Iraq. Against the Kurds.
10 Year War Iraw and Iran. Iran thinks Iraq not pure Muslims. Iran attacks. Iraq wins. Chemical weapons and stuff.
Turkey Major Human Rights issues. Kurds.
Kuiwait War Iraw attacks Kuwait w/ lots of oil. US ally. B/c used to belong to Ira1. Slant Drilling. Huss joins, but then SA joins. Fundamentalism rises.
Kurds US encourages the Kurds to rebel. Hussein hits w/ chemical weapons. Kills all kids. US loses interest.
Fundamentalists Government isn't doing the job people turn to fundamentalists.
Gulf War Iran surrounded by enemies. Hussein in Iraq. Iraq attacks. Poison gas on civilians. 10 years.
Iraq Hussein. Mostly Sunnites. Has Kurdish rebellion supported by Iran. Attacks. After war. Hussein goes to Kuwait- and invades. Bush interferes.
Created by: Darboo32