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Ancient Rome COS

VocabDefinition
Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; (Late 69 BC[1] – August 12, 30 BC) was an ancient Greek[2][3] queen and the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt.
Roman Legion is a term that can apply both as a translation of legio ("conscription" or "army") to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry
Praetorian Guard The Praetorian Guard (Latin: Prætoriani) was a force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors. The Guard was dissolved by Emperor Constantine I in the 4th century.
" Crossing the Rubicon " The idiom "Crossing the Rubicon" means to pass a point of no return, and refers to Julius Caesar's crossing of the river in 49 BC, which was considered an act of war.
Centurion A centurion (Latin: centurio; Greek: κεντυρίων), also hekatontarch (ἑκατόνταρχος) in Greek sources, or, in Byzantine times, kentarch (κένταρχος) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
assassinate n assassination is "to murder (a usually prominent person) by a sudden and/or secret attack, often for political reasons."
" Et tu Brute " "Et tu, Brute?" (pronounced /ɛt ˈtuː ˈbruːtɛ/) is a Latin phrase often used poetically to represent the last words of Roman dictator Julius Caesar to his friend Marcus Brutus at the moment of his murder by stabbing.
Scipio Africanus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (235–183 BC), also known as Scipio Africanus and Scipio the Elder, was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic.
Pax Romana Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman peace") was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.
Appian Way The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) was one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic. It connected Rome to Brindisi, Apulia, in southeast Italy.
aqueduct a structure that carries water over long distances
colosseum a large amphitheatre built in Rome around A.D 70; site of contests and combats between people and animals
Pantheon The Pantheon is a building in Rome, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD.
oculus An Oculus or circular window is a feature of Classical architecture since the 16th century.
gladiators in ancient Rome, a person who fought to the death in an arena for the entertainment of the public; usually a slave
Circus Maximus The Circus Maximus is an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome. Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills, it was the first and largest Chariot Racing Stadium in ancient Rome.
cuniculus A Cuniculus, plural cuniculi, is a diversionary water channel, often used in ancient Italy.
Roman Forum The Roman Forum is a small open rectangle surrounded by the ruins of ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this marketplace as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum.
Palatine Hill The Palatine Hill is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 metres[1] above the Forum Romanum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus on the other.
fasces Fasces are a bundle of wooden sticks with an axe blade emerging from the center, which is an image that traditionally symbolizes summary power and jurisdiction, and/or "strength through unity".[2]
S.P.Q.R SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase, Senatus Populusque Romanus ("The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official signature of the government.
republic A republic is a state under a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, retain supreme control over the government.[
mercenary A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict, who is not a national or a party to the conflict.
Tiber River The Tiber is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing 406 kilometres (252 mi) through Umbria and Lazio to the Tyrrhenian Sea.[
Baths of Caracalla The Baths of Caracalla in Rome, Italy were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla.
Londinium The city of London was established by the Romans around AD 43. It soon became the capital of Roman Britain and served as a major imperial commercial centre until its abandonment during the 5th century.
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges.
Alps The Alps are one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west.
Apennine Mountains The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km (750 mi) along the length of peninsular Italy.
dictator A dictator is a ruler who assumes sole and absolute power (sometimes but not always with military control) but without hereditary ascension such as an absolute monarch.
Christianity Christianity is a monotheistic religion[1] based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings.
toga The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a cloth of perhaps twenty feet (6 metres) in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic.
Celts The Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Roman-era Europe who spoke Celtic languages.[1]
Britian The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[note 7] (commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain) is a sovereign state[7][8] located off the north-western coast of continental Europe.
Helvetia Helvetia is the female national personification of Switzerland, officially Confœderatio Helvetica, the "Helvetic Confederation".
inflation In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
denarii In the Roman currency system, the denariuswas a small silver coin first minted in 211 BC. It was the most common coin produced for circulation but was slowly debased until its replacement by the antoninianus.
Visigoths The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. Together these tribes were among the Germanic peoples who spread through the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period.
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths were a branch of the Goths (the other branch being the Visigoths), an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in political events of the last decades of the Roman Empire. The Ostrogoths established the Kingdom of Italy, a relatively sh
Vandals The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century, perhaps best known for their sack of Rome in 455.
Latin Latin is an Italic language[3] originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
cohort A cohort was the basic tactical unit of a Roman legion following the reforms of Gaius Marius in 107 BC.
Spartacus Spartacus (c. 109 BC – 71 BC) was the most notable leader of the slaves in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and Roman constitutionalist. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the equestrian order, and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.
Seneca Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Martial Marcus Valerius Martialis was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan.
Province A province is a prepositional unit, almost always an administrative division, within a country or state
veto A veto,or in latin for "I forbid", is the power of an officer of the state to unilaterally stop a piece of legislation
Rubicon River The Rubicon is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, about 80 kilometres long, running from the Apennine Mountains to the Adriatic Sea through the southern Emilia-Romagna region, between the towns of Rimini and Cesena.
Germania Germania was the Latin term[1][2] for a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine (inner Germania), which included regions of Sarmatia as well as an area under Roman control on the west bank of the Rhine.
Messiah Messiah,is a term used in Judaism, Christianity and Islam for the redeemer figure expected in one form or another by each religion.
Disciple In Islam it is believed that Jesus had disciples. The literal Arabic term used in the Qur’an for "the disciples" is ٱلْحَوَارِيُّونَ (al-Hawāriyūn).
Gospel A gospel is a written account that describes the life, death, and Resurrection of Jesus. In a more general sense the term "gospel" may refer to the Good News message of the New Testament.
Epistle An epistle is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter.
Martyr A martyr is somebody who suffers persecution and death for refusing to renounce a belief or cause, usually religious.
tribune Tribune was a title shared by elected officials in the Roman Republic. Tribunes had the power to convene the Plebeian Council and to act as its president, which also gave them the right to propose legislation before it.
plebeian The plebs were the general body of free landowning Roman citizens (as distinguished from slaves) in Ancient Rome.
patrician The term patrician originally referred to a group of elite families in ancient Rome, including both their natural and adopted members.
consul Consul was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire.
Laws of the Twelve Tablets ( Tables ) The Law of the Twelve Tables was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.
Roman assembly The Legislative Assemblies of the Roman Republic were political institutions in the ancient Roman Republic.
Roman Senate The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome.
republic A republic is a state under a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, retain supreme control over the government.
Etruscans Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany.
Romulus and Remus Romulus and Remus are Rome's twin founders in its traditional foundation myth, although the former is sometimes said to be the sole founder.
emperor An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Julius Caesar
Augustus Caesar Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and Roman constitutionalist. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the equestrian order, and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.
Pompeii
Herculaneum
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Trajan
- Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus[1] (15 December 37 – 9 June 68),[2] born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, and commonly known as Nero, was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68. He was the last emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Tiberius
Caligula Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus commonly known as Caligula and sometimes Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 to 41. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Constantine -
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tribune The Ides of March (Latin: Idus Martii) is the name of 15 March in the Roman calendar, probably referring to the day of the full moon.
Gaul a region inhabited by the ancient Gauls; now present-day France and parts of Belgium, Germany, and Italy.
- Vercingetorix was the chieftain of the Arverni tribe, who united the Gauls in an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
Attila the Hun Attila also known as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire, which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea.
- Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey (/ˈpɒmpiː/) or Pompey the Great was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
- Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general and politician who commanded the left wing of Sulla's army at the Battle of the Colline Gate
Gladius Gladius (Latin: glădĭus) was the roman word for sword, and is used to represent the primary sword of Ancient Rome soldiers.
Scutum Scutum is a small constellation introduced in the seventeenth century. Its name is Latin for shield.
- The ballista was an ancient missile weapon which launched a large projectile at a distant target.
- A triumvirate (from Latin, "of three men") is a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals, each a triumvir .
Paul Paul(died c.A.D 64) disciple of Jesus, spent his later life spreading Jesus' teachings; his writings helped turn Christianity into an organized religion
Spartacus
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Catacombs
Martial Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus[notes 1] (c. 22 December 244[3] – 3 December 311),[4] commonly known as Diocletian, was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305.
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veto
- Gaius Plinius Secundus better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.
Rome Publius Vergilius Maro was a classical Roman poet, best known for three major works—the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the Aeneid—although several minor poems are also attributed to him.
Messiah Titus Livius (59 BC – AD 17), known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people.
- a boot-shaped country in southern Europe, including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia
Gospel
Epistle A catapult is a device used to throw or hurl a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
- The Groma was the principal Roman surveying instrument. It comprised a vertical staff with horizontal cross pieces mounted at right-angles on a bracket.
A milestone (from the Latin milliarium) is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile.
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Etruscans
Catacombs
Diocletian
Pilum
Livy
Milarium
Diocletian
Seneca
Groma
Milarium
" Beware the Ides of March "
Created by: evrae1