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NIC Linguistics

Terms from the ASL Linguistics Book

Linguistics the scientific study of language
morphology the study of the way in which words are constructed out of smaller meaningful units
phonetics the study of speech sounds
phonology the study of the smallest contrastive units of a language
symmetry condition in a two handed sign, if both hands move, they will have the same hand shape
dominance condition in a two-handed sign, if each hand has a different hand shape, then only the active/dominant hand can move
7 Basic Passive Handshapes B A S O C 1 5
Arbitrary Signs the actual form of the sign does not represent the concept conveyed
Iconic Signs signs that resemble the concept that they represent (more pictorial)
Onomatopoeia the linguistic form of a word symbolizes the sound of the object or activity to which it refers
Phonesthesia a group of words that resemble each other and whose forms seem to reflect their meaning
Duality of Patterning the symbols of which a language is composed can be broken down into smaller parts
Pragmatics the meaning of a word or sentence depends on aspects of the context in which it is used
Displacement the features of a language that allow us to refer to different time periods
what year was the first american school for the deaf founded? 1817
What was the name of the first school for the deaf? Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons
What is the new name of the first school for the deaf? American School for the Deaf
Where was the first school for the Deaf founded? Hartford, Connecticut
Who founded the first school for the deaf? Thomas Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc
Why were english-based forms of ASL developed? To help teach deaf children english (deaf education)
Five Basic Parts of a sign (Parameters) handshape, movement, location, orientation, non-manual markers
conventions agreed upon symbols
stokoe method []√C‡√Cvו
minimal pair signs that are identical in all parameters except one
Liddell-Johnson Method X M H M H
Phonological Processes the way in which the parts of signs interact with each other
movement epenthesis the process of adding a movement segment between two signs
hold deletion eliminates hold between movements when signs occur in sequence
metathesis the segments of a sign can change places without changing the meaning (deaf, congress, flower)
assimilation a segment of a sign takes on the characteristics of another segment near it
morpheme the smallest meaningful units of a language
free morpheme morphemes that can be produced as an independent unit
bound morpheme morphemes that must occur in conjunction with other morphemes
reduplication the process of repeating a movement, typically to change a verb to a noun
affixation the process of adding bound morphemes to other forms to create new units (such as prefixes and suffixes)
first contact rule in a compound sign, only the first contact of the sign is kept
single sequence rule the initial movement or the repetition of movement is eliminated in a compund sign
weak hand anticipation rule in forming a signed compound, often the weak hand will anticipate the second sign in the compound
movement epenthesis the adding of a movement segement between the parts of a comound sign
hold deletion in forming a compound sign, the noncontact holds between movements are eliminated
assimilation a segment of a compound sign takes on the characteristics of a sign near it
compounding combining two signs in order to create new meaning
lexicalized fingerspelling fingerspelled signs become sign-like
loan signs signs that are borrowed from other signed languages
orthographic symbols written english words
articulatory function of space the location of the sign provides no additional information, the space it uses is simply the space needed to produce it
Phonological use of space changing the location of the sign changes its meaning
morphological use of space space is used to show person and number (GIVE TO HIM)
aspectual markers space is used to show how something is done (giving continuously)
referential use of space a location in space may be associated with a nominal (noun)
locative function of space space provides information about the location of a person or object in a 3D framework, how something moves
frame of reference who's perspective the signing is from
relative frame of reference signer's own perspective is used
intrinsic features signs or classifiers show identifiable parts of a nominal (noun)
absolute frame of reference the signing is from no specific perspective (north is up)
narrative perspective a signer may take on the role of the characters
plain verbs verbs that are produced in a static location that cannot be altered without changing the meaning of the sign
indicating verbs verbs that move toward specific people, objects, or spatial locations
depicting verbs verbs that contain information related to action or state of being and convey information about aspects of meaning
reciprocal verbs two entities exchanging of something (they look at each other)
locative verbs the actual direction or location of the sign contains specific meaning
intransitive verbs verbs that do not allow objects
transitive verbs verbs that allow for objects
ASL word order SVO (subject, verb, object)
word order, simple sentence, intransitive plain verb SV (subject, verb)or subject, verb, pronoun or verb pronoun
Topicalization the topic or prominent information is placed at the beginning of the sentence
predicate the part of the sentence that says something about the noun or noun phrase
productive classifier predicate each part of the classifier has meaning and can be seperated
lexicalized classifier predicate a classifier that has become a sign, the parts of the sign no longer have independent meaning
aspect information contained in the predicate that tells us how the action of the predicate is done (never-ending, frequent, intense)
derivational morphology the process of making new units for the language
inflectional morphology the process of adding grammatical information to units that already exist (-s, -er)
syntax aka grammar the rules for making sentences
lexical categories verb, noun, adjectives, adverbs
determiners words or signs that modify nouns (the, a, an) (in ASL the use of pointing)
auxiliary verbs verbs that accompany other verbs or predicates and are used to add tense and aspect information (WILL, CAN, FINISH, MUST)
prepositions words that show the relationships between nouns and predicates
what is the NMM for a yes-no question? eyebrows raised (what type of question?)
what is the NMM for a wh- question? lowered eyebrows (what type of question?)
QM wg the question mark wiggle
rhetorical questions (rhet) questions that do not expect an answer, raised eyebrows
How are commands (imperatives) glossed? *SIT*
conditionals (cond) express a condition upon which the topics being discussed depend
habitual time signs that are changed to represent a habit (every monday)
semantics the study of the rule-governed ways in which languages structure meaning
referential meaning the idea, thing, or state of affairs described by a sentence or sign
social meaning signs provide information about the signer (gender, race, location)
affective meaning signs provide information about the signer's feelings, attitude, or opinions about a piece of information
denotation the dictionary definition of a word
connotation the feelings associated with a word
lexicon the collection of words or signs that a person knows
lexical items the individual words that a person knows
hyponyms the items in a category
hypernym the broad category
part/whole relationship two signs that are a part of each other, not an item in a category
synonymy (synonyms) two signs or words that mean the same thing
antonymy (antonyms) two words or signs that have opposite meanings
converseness pairs of signs that have a resemblance to each other and a relationship (WIFE, HUSBAND)
gradation altering some feature of an existing sign instead of adding a whole new sign (half-dead)
metaphor an extension of the use of a word or sign beyond its primary meaning
orientational metaphors metaphors that rely on spatial information
ontological metaphors metaphors that treat abstract entities, states, and events as though they were objects (climbing out of debt)
structural metaphors metaphors that treat one concept in the terms of a more tangible concept (time is money)
semantic role how sentences show who did what to whom, with whom, and for whom
sociolinguistics the study of the interrelationship of language and social structure
communicative competence someone who know a language well has this
variation in language people have different ways of saying the same thing
historical change the old and new form of a sign may co-exist for a while, but the old sign may disappear over time
morphosyntactic variation the process of the dropping of the subject pronoun with verb that typically require a subject (FEEL, KNOW, LIKE)
register variation the language that is appropriate for certain situations
code-switching happens when a bilingual person is using one language and then changes to another language
foreign talk a native user simplifies their own language to compensated for a foreigner
interference when a bilingual person unconsciously uses parts of one language in another language
lexicalized mouthing ASL mouth configurations that resemble their english words
contact signing the result of contact between english and ASL, containing features of both
types of stories in deaf culture ABC stories, Numerical Stories, Classifier Stories, Percussion Song, Drama
Created by: lmkarst08
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