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-Clinical Chem

Carbs & Proteins

QuestionAnswer
Monosaccharide A simple sugar that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler form
3 examples of a Monosac glucose, fructose, and galactose
Disaccharide 2 monosacs covalently joined by an o-glycosidic bond
Maltose glucose + glucose
Lactose glucose + galactose
Sucrose glucose + fructose
Polysaccharide linkage of multiple monosacs
examples of polysacs starch and glycogen
Oligosaccharide any carb that yields only a few monosac molecules upon hydrolysis
glycogenesis glucose to glycogen
glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen to glucose
gluconeogenesis formation of glucose-6-phosphate from a non-carbohydrate source
glycolysis the conversion of glucose to pyruvate or lactate for production of energy
Which glucose structure is predominant in the body? D-glucose
Name the 3 enzymes needed in Carb metabolism. salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, and disaccharidase
What three carbs are absorbed during carb metabolism? glucose, fructose, and galactose
What are the 3 metabolic pathways? glycogen metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and energy production
1 gram of carb supplies how many calories? Total body? 4 1,480
What occurs during the fed state? excess glucose converted to glycogen and stored in the liver, if more glucose is present than can be stored lipogenesis occurs
What occurs during the fasting state? Glucose is immediately utilized and glycogen storage is utilized
What are the five regulatory hormones for glucose? insulin, GH, glucagon, epinephrine, and thyroxine (T4)
What specimen do glucometers require? whole blood
Diabetes Mellitus do not have enough insulin to maintain levels of blood glucose
IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 1=Pancreatic insufficiency
NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 2-overweight, "mature onset"
GDM Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-occurs in 1-5% of pregnant women
4 steps in GDM screen 1. perform between 24-28 weeks 2. 50 g oral glucose land 3. measure bld glu at 1 hr 4. if glu>140 mg/dl, then perform GTT
2 consequences of GDM for the fetus hypoglycemia or death
3 steps in GTT fasting glu is drawn, 75g of glu given orally, blood is collected 2 hours post (except when pregnant)
causes of hypoglycemia medications, predisposing illness, and hospitalized patient
What is prealbumin? plasma protein that binds thyroxine and T3
What is albumin? transport protein that stores a wide variety of ligands
hyperalbuminemia dehydration
hypoalbuminemia causes impaired synthesis, increased catabolism, increased loss in urine or feces, reduced absorption of amino acids in intestines.
albumin determination bromcresol green (most common) and purple
Alpha1-antitrypsin function neutralize lysosomal elastase released by neutrophils, anti-protease activity
decrease in Alpha1-antitrypsin seen in lung diseases (neonatal respiratory distress)
increase in Alpha1-antitrypsin more common, an acute phase reactant
alpha1 lipoproteins (HDL) transport of cholesterol and fat soluble vitamins, significant in hyperlipidemia
alpha1 lipoprotein method of determination precipitation of LD and VLDL with salts and then re-run sample for cholesterol results
Haptoglobin (alpha 2 region)function binds free Hb in serum
Haptoglobin clinical significance used to detect and monitor acute phase reactions, hemolytic states will have an increase of haptoglobin
Determination of Haptoglobin immunochemical assays
Alpha2-macroglobulin probable vital in inflammation, increased in nephritic syndrome
Ceruloplasmin (in alpha 2 region) function principal copper-containing protein of plasma
Clinical significance of ceruloplasmin decreased in Wilson's disease (increased free serum copper), malnutrition
alpha2 lipoproteins (VLDL)function transports hepatic synthesized trigylcerides and cholesterol
VLDL clinical significance pancreatitis, increased risk of coronary heart disease
calculating VLDL trig/50
transferrin (Beta region) transportation of iron in the blood, useful in diagnosis of anemia: increased in IDA, N-dec in failure to incorporate iron in RBC
Beta lipoprotein (LDL) function transportation of cholesterol, phospholipids and hormones
LDL clinical significance increased in nephrosis and hyperlipidemia
LDL calculation Total cholestrol- (VLDL + HDL)
Characterisitcs of total protein contain 16% Nitrogen, all proteins react the same way chemically
Protein cellular functions catalyze biochemical reactions, regulate metabolism, maintain oncotic pressure, transport, carry oxygen, affect hemostasis of the vasculature system
3 globular proteins Hb, enzymes, albumin
3 fibrous protein collagen, elastin, keratin
3 conjugated proteins lipoproteins, glycoproteins, mucoprotein, and metalloproteins
3 major ingredients in electrophoresis support media, buffer, and power source
decrease buffer affects electrophoresis how? increases movement of protein due to increase in ionic strength
increase buffer affects electrophoresis how? decreases movements because proteins become charged
increase voltage and time affects electrophoresis how? increase migration of proteins, risk of running proteins off the gel (or denaturing them if voltage is too high)
Five distinct bands in serum total protein albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma
Created by: Tabi84
 

 



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