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EK Bio 6

Digestive and excretory

what reaction type is common to digestion of all macronutrients? hydrolysis
four major cell types of stomach mucous cells, chief (peptic) cells, parietal cells, and G-cells
mucous cells of stomach contain ER and golgi to make the mucus to protect epithelial lining in the stomach
chief cells synthesizes pepsionogen; found deep in exocrine glands
parietal cells synthesizes HCl; has many mitochondria to produce sufficeint energy to establish H+ gradient; also secretes intrinsic factor that helps ileum absorb B12
G-cells secretes gastrin that goes into interstitium and absorbed into blood that stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCl
digestion begins in the mouth with ____ alpha amylase in the saliva
where are carbohydrates first starting to be digested mouth
what is the main function of the stomach to store food, helps with physical and chemical digestion
which are the major hormones that affect secretion of stomach juices acetylcholine (secretion of all cell types), gastrin (mainly HCl), and histamine (mainly HCl)
90% of digestion and absorption occurs where in the digestive tract? small intestine
most of the digestion occurs in _____, and absorption in ___ (small intestine) digestion - duodenum and absorption - jejunum and ileum
lacteal lymph vessel found in each villus
type of cell that makes up microvilli? enterocytes
what is an enterocyte? epithelial cells that make up microvilli and help with absorptive properties of small intestine
goblet cells epithelial cells of microvilli that secrete mucus and lubricate intestine to protect brush border from mechanical and chemical damage
brush border fuzzy covering of small intestine that contains membrane bound gdigestive enzymes
crypts of Lieberkuhn intestinal exocrine glands that secrete intestinal juice with pH of 7.6 and lysozome that regulates bacteria in intestine
major digestive enyzmes released by pancreas trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic amylase, lipase, ribonucelase, and deoxyribonuclease
which digestive pancreatic enzymes degrade proteins? trypsin and chymotrypsin
which digestive pancreatic enzymes degrade polysaccharides? pancreatic amylase
which digestive pancreatic enzymes degrade fat/triglycerides? lipase
bile fluid produced in liver and stored in gall bladder which emulsifies the fat clumps - breaking it into small particles so lipase can more easily degrade fats
4 parts of large intestine ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon
major function of large intestine water and electrolyte reabsorption
what type of bacteria is often found in large intestine? E. coli which produce vitamin K, B12, thiamin, and riboflavin
major carbohydrates in human diet include sucrose, lactose, and starch
most of glucose is converted to... glycogen
what happens when glycogen stores are full? glucose is converted to fat (by liver, and stored in fat cells)
virtually all dietary proteins are broken down to ____ before being absorbed into the blood amino acids, not small polypeptdies
common byproduct of gluconeogenesis from proteins ammonia which is converted to urea by liver and excreted in urine by kidney
how is fat transported in the blood? with lipoprotein or albumin
albumin usually carries 3 fatty acid molecules, but can carry up to 30; main osmoregulatory protein in blood
lipoprotein form of 95% of lipids in plasma, 4 types
4 types of lipoproteins very low-density lipoproteins, intermediate-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and high density lipoproteins
increasing density of lipoprotein trends.. less triglyceride transport and lower cholestorol transport
all blood rec’d by liver moves thru ____ and collects in the _____ which leads to the _____ hepatic sinusoids, hepatic vein, leading to vena cava
eight functions of liver blood storage, blood filtration, carbohydrate metabolism (gluconeogenesis), fat metabolism, protein metabolism, detoxification, erythrocyte destruction, vitamin storage
when the liver mobilizes fat or protein for energy, the blood acidity increases or decreases? increases bc it produces acids called ketone bodies when using fat for energy
protein metabolism by liver includes deaminating amino acids, forming urea from ammonia in blood, synthesizing plasma proteins and globulins, and synthesizes nonessential amino acids
what vitamins are stored by liver? vitamin !, D, and b12, and iron in the form of ferritin
fat metabolism in the liver liver synthesizes bile from cholesterol and converts carbs and proteins into fat; it oxidizes fatty acids for energy and forms most lipoproteins
3 functions of the kidney excrete waste products, maintain homeostasis of body fluid volume & solute composition, and help control plasma pH
functional unit of the kidney nephron
flow of filtrate thru nephron order bowman’s capsule + glomerulus - proximal tubule - loop of Henle - distal tubule - collecting tubule - collecting duct
how is plasma forcd thru the fenstrations of the golumerulus into the Bowman’s capsule? thru hydrostatic pressure - easily pushing water, glucose, amino acids, and ions thru the fenestrations leaving out large proteins (like albumin) and blood cells
proximal tubule where most reabsorption by epithelial cells takes place - uses 2ary active transport proteins to reabsorb nearly all glucose, proteins and other solutes until transport proteins are saturated (left over solutes are washed into urine)
antiport system in proximal tubule how H+ ions are secreted with sodium, similar to transport system of glucose with sodium but H+ secreted in opposite direction to sodium
what is secreted into the proximal tubule? drug, toxisn, other solutes, H+ ions, uric acids, bile pigmants, antibiotics
net result of proximal tubule reduce amt of filtrate in neprhon while change solute composition w/o changing osmolarity
descending loop of henle low permeability to salt, so filtrate osmolarity goes up as water passively diffuses out into medulla
asending loop of henle nearly impermeable to water where salt is diffused out of ascending loop passively at first, and then actively
vasa recta second capillary bed that surrounds loop of henle to help maintain the concentration of the medulla
distal tubule reabsorbs Na+, Ca+ while secreting K+, H+ and bicarb
aldosterone acts on (what part of nephron) to (increase or decrease) sodium and potassium membrane transport proteins? acts on distal tubule to increase sodium and potassium membrane transport proteins
net effect of distal tubule lower filtrate osmolarity
ADH acts on (what part of nephron) to (increase or decrease) permeability of cells to water? acts on collecting tubule to increase permeability of cells to water --> this means water flows from tubule and concentrating filtrate
collecting duct carries filtrate into highly osmotic medulla; is impermeable to water but sensitive to ADH (which makes collecting duct permeable to water) allowing it to passivly diffuse into medulla to concentrate the urine
renal calyx where the collecting ducts lead to, which empties int renal pelvis
juxtaglomerular apparatus monitors filtrate pressure in distal tubule, has specialized cells that secrete the enzyme renin
renin enyzme that initiates regulator cascade producing angiotensin I, II, and III which stimulate the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone
how justaglomerulus apparatus (pathway) responds when filtrate volume is low... signal is sent to lower resistance of efferent arterioles of glomerulus (the arterioles that flow away from to glomerulus) so that hydrostatic pressure of glomerulus is increased which will increase the filtration rate
angiotensin II constricts efferent arterioles so that there is a further increase in glomerulur pressure and GFR which means an increase in aldosterone to increase Na+ reasorption
renal corpuscle glomerulus + bowman’s capsule
kidney is made of... outer cortex and inner medulla
Created by: miniangel918
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