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BR Chem Ch2

Flashcards from chapter 2 of Berkley Review's chemistry book (2010)

Mass Number (A) Number of protons + neturons
Atomic number (Z) Number of protons
Charge of an electron -1.602x10-19 C (-1e)
Thomson experiment Demonstrated the existence of opposite charges in an atom and that charge is a fixed quantity. Constant charge to mass ratio. Electrons shot through positive and negative plates. Electron bended towards opposite charged plate
Mass spectrometry Electron shot through magnetic field and electron bends back and hits detector plate. Used to measure the charge-to-mass ratio. Large mass and velocity results in large radius of curve. Large charge or strong magnetic field results in small raidus.
Millikan oil drop experiment Determines magnitude of charge. Oil dropped shot with electrons and falls between two parallel plates. Electric field is increased until oil droplet floats. Force of electric field is equal to force of gravity
Rutherford experiment Determines location of dense particles Xrays shot through thin gold foil strip. When xrays hit Ag nucleus, the xray is deflected, otherwise passes straight through. Pattern that shows up on photographic plate shows dense nuclei
H-2 Deuterium, used in proton NMR solvents
C-12 Most abundant isotope
C-13 Used in carbon NMR
C-14 Used in carbon dating because of decay
H-1 Most abundant isotope of hydrogen
H-3 Tritium, used in radio-labeling experiments
U-235 Used in nuclear fission
U-238 Most abundant isotope of uranium
Energy of an elecron in its principal energy level Proportional to Z^2/n^2 Z: nuclear charge n: Electronic energy level
Energy of photon E = hv = hc/lambda v: frequency c: speed of light (3.0x10^8) lambda: wavelength h: Planck's constant
Transition energy -2.178x10^-18 * (1/nfinal^2 - 1/ninitial^2)
Paramagnetic Unpaired electrons, is affected by magnetic fields
Diamagnetic All electrons paired, is not affected by magnetic fields
Pauli's exclusion principle No two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers
Hund's rule Electrons completely fill lower energy levels before starting to fill higher energy levels
Afbau Principle Electrons are added one by one to the shells, starting with the lowest energy level
Cation Ion with positive charge
Anion Ion with negative charge
Principle quantum number (n) Describes the shell
Angular momentum quantum number (l) Describes the orbital (s, p, d, f), 0 to n-1
Magnetic quantum number (ml) Describes orientation of the orbital. -l to l
Spin quantum number (ms) Describes rotation of the elctron (+1/2, -1/2)
Degenerate Identical energy levels
Zeff trend Increases from bottom left to top right
Atomic radius trend Increases from top right to bottom left
Ionization energy trend Amout of energy required to remove an electron from an element in it's gas state Increases from bottom left to top right
Electron Affinity trend Measures tendenc of an element to gain an electron Becomes more negative from bottom left to top right... sort of... lots of exceptions for half-filled and fully filled shells
Electronegativity trend An atom's tendency to gain and retain an atom from another atom in a bond Increases from bottom left to top right
Electronegativity and ion vs covalent bond Eneg > 2 means ionic bond
Group I - Alkali Metals - react with water to form hydroxides and hydrogen gas - react with oxygen to form oxides
Group II Alkaline Earth Metals - React with water to form hydroxides and hydrogen gas - react with oxygen to form oxides
Group VI Chalcogens
Group VII Halogens - strong oxidizing agents - Exist as diatomic molecules
Group VIII Noble gases - Unreactive (some Xe and Kr with halogens)
Lyman series nfinal = 1
Balmer series nfinal = 2
Paschen series nfinal = 3
Brackett series nfinal = 4
Visible light 700nm - 400nm ROY G BiV
EM Spectrum AM, FM, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Ray, Gamma
Emitted vs Reflected color Emitted color can be seen in dark. Reflected color cannot
Color wheel/Complementary colors Color of an object is the complementary color to the highest absorbed color
Photoelectric effect Incident photon casues release of an electron. Energy required to remove electron is work function, all extra energy becomes kinetic energy
Fluorescence Visible photon emitted is of slightly less energy than input energy because a small amount of infrared energy is emitted as electron jumps down states
Fission Particle loss from nucleus that results in different nucleus (nuclear decay, mass greater than 56 amu)
Fusion Particle gained by the nucleus which results in a different nucleus (nuclear capture, mass less than 56 amu)
Alpha particle 4alpha2 (helium nucleus)
Beta Particle 0beta-1
Positron 0beta+1
gamma emission Mass and proton number do not change, photon emitted
First order half life Half life is constant (Ct = Coe^-kt)
Zero order half life Half-life decreases as concentration decreases
Created by: kcurtiss