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SOL Review

A SOL review of vocabulary for US History

DescriptionTerm
Pilgrims pact to form their ideal utopian society covenant community
where people vote on every issue; today, we live in a representative one where we elect someone to vote on most issues direct democracy
Agreement made about the ship by the Pilgrims to form a covenant community Mayflower Compact
first elected national assembly in the New World; today called the General Assembly House of Burgesses
large scale farms in the South where the slaves and indentured servants worked plantation
tobacco, rice, in indigo in the South cash crops
a religious movement that swept both Europe and the colonies in the mid-1700s. Great Awakening
name for the voyage of slaves from Africa, across the Atlantic and to the New World Middle Passage
people have the power in government popular sovereignty
When the British prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains Proclamation of 1763
financed the Jamestown settlement Virginia Company of London
English act that placed taxes on legal documents in the Colonies; contributed the American Revolution--"no taxation without representation" Stamp Act
colonists threw tea from England into Boston Harbor in protest of the new tax on tea Boston Tea Party
War between the French and English; English won and the French were kicked out of North America French and Indian War
British troops fired on anti-British demonstrators. Boston Massacre
fought a brief skirmish with British troops at Lexington and Concord. minutemen
– Believed in complete independence from England patriots
– Remained loyal to Britain, based on cultural and economic ties – Believed that taxation of the colonies was justified to pay for British troops to protect American settlers from Indian attacks Loyalists or Tories
– The many colonists who tried to stay as uninvolved in the war as possible neutrals
· Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with this country causing them to help the Americans against the English; if they didn't help us, the Americans would not have won the Revolutionary War France
Leader of the American (Continental) Army George Washington
The last battle of the Revolution, when the French navy cut off the British Yorktown
· Provided for a weak national government· Gave Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states· Provided for no common currency· Gave each state one vote regardless of size· Provided for no executive or judicial branch Articles of Confederation
The House of Representatives is based on a state's _______________. population
counted slaves as part of the population Three-Fifths Compromise
Avoided a too powerful government by creating these three co-equal branches of government judicial, legislative, and executive
George Washington was the ______________ of the Constitutional Convention Chairman
central government (in America, our central government is in DC) Federalism
Anti-Federalist didn't support the Constitution because it lacked these Bill of Rights
won by Thomas Jefferson, was the first American presidential election in which power was peacefully transferred from one party to another Election of 1800
established the power of the federal courts to declare laws unconstitutional “judicial review” Marlbury vs. Madison
prohibited the states from taxing agencies of the federal government McCulloch v. Maryland
doubled the size of the United States overnight Louisiana Purchase
this war produced an American claim to the Oregon Territory, and increased migration of American settlers into Florida, which was later acquired by treaty from Spain War of 1812
– The American continents should not be considered for future colonization by any European powers. – The United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in Monroe Doctrine
term used to describe the South prior to the Civil War Cotton Kingdom
Famous battle in Texas against the Mexicans, in which a small band of Americans fought to the death against the much larger Mexican army Alamo
An American victory in this war resulted in the acquisition of New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California and part of Colorado. Mexican War
Belief that America would eventually stretch from the Atlantic to Pacific Oceans. Manifest Destiny
several tribes were relocated from Atlantic Coast states to Oklahoma) or confined to reservations Trail of Tears
A government in which power is given to those believed to be best qualified Aristocracy
A member of an aristocracy Aristocrat
Power granted to the President to prevent passage of legislation presidential veto
A practice of using public offices to benefit members of the victorious party spoils system
The economic situation that resulted from reckless speculation that led to bank failures and dissatisfaction with the use of state banks as depositories for public funds Panic of 1837
These states developed an industrial economy based on manufacturing. They favored high protective tariffs to protect Northern manufacturers from foreign competition Northern
These states developed an agricultural economy consisting of a slavery-based system of plantations in the lowlands along the Atlantic and in the Deep South, and small subsistence farmers in the foothills and valleys of the Appalachian Mountains. Southern
As the United States expanded westward, the conflict over _______________ grew more bitter and threatened to tear the country apart. slavery
people who are against slavery Abolitionists
a best-selling novel that inflamed Northern abolitionist sentiment. Southerners were frightened by the growing strength of Northern abolitionism Uncle Tom's Cabin
drew an east-west line through the Louisiana Purchase, with slavery prohibited above the line and allowed below, except that slavery was allowed in Missouri, north of the line. Missouri Compromise of 1820
California entered as a free state, while the new Southwestern territories acquired from Mexico would decide on their own. Compromise of 1850
repealed the Missouri Compromise line by giving people in Kansas and Nebraska the choice whether to allow slavery in their states (“popular sovereignty”). Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
party created to end slavery; Lincoln was a member Republican
to withdrawl from the Union (country); this is what many southern states did. secede
Court case that overturned efforts to limit the spread of slavery and outraged Northerners Dred Scott
which required slaves who escaped to free states to be forcibly returned to their owners in the South Fugitive Slave Act
Lincoln speech that said The nation could not continue half-free, half-slave. The issue must be resolved "A House Divided"
meeting held by Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony regarding women's rights Seneca Falls Convention
resulted in the secession of several Southern states who feared that Lincoln would try to abolish slavery Election of 1860 (Lincoln)
Opening confrontation of the Civil War Fort Sumter
issued by Lincoln after Battle of Antietam; freed slaves in the Confederate states only Emancipation Proclamation
Turning point of the Civil War Gettysburg
Site of Lee’s surrender to Grant Appomattox
Lincoln's speech that described the Civil War as a struggle to preserve a nation that was dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal” and that was ruled by a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.” Gettysburg Address
What the south was called during the Civil War Confederacy
what the north was called during the Civil War Union
period after the Civil War the tried to rebuild and help African-Americans in the South Reconstruction
Slavery was abolished permanently in the United States. 13th Amendment
believed in aggressively guaranteeing voting and other civil rights to African Americans. They clashed repeatedly with Lincoln’s successor as President, Andrew Johnson Radical Republicans
States were prohibited from denying equal rights under the law to any American. 14th Amendments
Voting rights were guaranteed regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” (former slaves). 15th Amendments
13th through 15th Amendments are called these Civil War Amendments
After the Election of 1876 where there was no clear winner, this compromise said in return for support in the electoral college vote from Southern Democrats, the Republicans agreed to end the military occupation of the South Compromise of 1877
· The Reconstruction period ended following the extremely close presidential election of ________ 1876
long period after the compromise of 1877 in which African Americans in the South were denied the full rights of American citizenship. "Jim Crow Era"
These two regions emerged with strong and growing industrial economies, laying the foundation for the sweeping industrialization of the nation North and Midwest
This region remained a backward, agriculture-based economy and the poorest section of the nation for many decades afterward. South
intensified the westward movement of settlers into the states between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean Transcontinental Railroad
which gave free public land in the western territories to settlers who would live on and farm the land. Homestead Act of 1862
· Southerners and African Americans, in particular, moved _______ to seek new opportunities after the Civil War. west
· Prior to 1871, most immigrants to America came from ________ and _________ Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden). northern, western
During the half-century from 1871 until 1921, most immigrants came from ________ and ________ Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, and present-day Hungary and Yugoslavia), as well as Asia (China and Japan). southern, eastern
Where many immigrants came into the US Ellis Island
What most immigrants first saw when reaching the US Statue of Liberty
immigrants' process of assimilation into the US culture and customs "melting pot"
These two acts effectively cut off most immigration to America for the next several decades Chinese Exclusionary Act of 1882 and Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
Court case where the Supreme Court ruled that “separate but equal” did not violate the 14th Amendment, upholding the “Jim Crow” laws of the era. Plessy v. Ferguson
African Americans began to move to Northern cities in search of jobs and to escape poverty and discrimination in the South "Great Migration"
Period that used government to reform problems created by industrialization Progressive Era
Amendment that allowed direct election of U.S. Senators 17th Amendment
Strikes during the Progressive Period Haymarket, Pullman, and Homestead
Act which Prevents any business structure that “restrains trade” (monopolies) Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Expands Sherman Anti-Trust Act; outlaws price-fixing; exempts unions from Sherman Act Clayton Anti-Trust Act
the right to vote suffrage
amendment which gained women the right to vote 19th Amendment
Secretary of State John Hay proposed a policy that would give all nations equal trading rights in China. Open Door Policy
President Taft urged American banks and businesses to invest in Latin America. He promised that the United States would step in if unrest threatened their investments Dollar Diplomacy
Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States. The United States asserted the right to intervene in Cuban affairs. Spanish American War
Theodore Roosevelt negotiated a treaty to build this Panama Canal
Annexed after Spanish American War Phillipines
Urged all foreigners in China to obey Chinese law, observe fair competition Open Door Policy
This war began in Europe in 1914 when Germany and Austria-Hungary went to war with Britain, France, and Russia World War I
people have to right to run their own country; idea in Wilson's 14 Points Self-determination
any ship should be safe and not fear attack in the oceans; part of Wildon's 14 Points freedom of the seas
Wilson's international peacekeeping organzation League of Nations
ruling a country until it is stable enough to take control of itself; part of Wilson's 14 Points Mandate system
ended World War I; punished Germany harshly for the war; contributed to World War II Treaty of Versailles
country which did not join the League of Nations United States
· Overspeculation on stocks using borrowed money caused this to happen Stock Market Crash
Ove10 year period when the US suffered a very poor economy Great Depression
Failed to prevent widespread collapse of the nation’s banking system in the late 1920s and early 1930s, leading to severe contraction in the nation’s supply of money in circulation Federal Reserve
· High protective tariffs that produced retaliatory tariffs in other countries, strangling world trade Hawley Smoot Tariff
Franklin Roosevelt's plan to help during the Great Depression New Deal
· Relief measures provided direct payment to people for immediate help Works Progress Administration
Reform measure that corrected unsound banking and investment practices Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
paid farmers to destroy or not plant on part of their farms in order to help raise prices for milk, meat, and vegetables Agricultural Adjustment Act
this act offered safeguards for workers and gave relief to the elderly Social Securities Act
World War II began with Hitler's invasion of ___________ Poland
During both World War I and II the US remained _________ during the beginning years neutral
Hitler broke his alliance with this country and invaded it Soviet Union (Russia)
When Germany pounded Great Britain in a massive air bomb campaign Battle of Britain
gave the President authority to sell or lend equipment to countries to defend themselves against the Axis powers Lend-Lease Act
Germany's ally, Japan, was made at the US when it cut off selling these two natural resources to Japan Oil and steel
Japanese attack on Hawaii which caused the US to enter WWII Pearl Harbor
Strategy used by the Allies of Britain, US and Soviet Union "Defeat Hitler First"
Allied strategy in the Pacific, seizing islands closer and closer to Japan and using them as bases for air attacks on Japan "island-hopping"
Germany, Italy, and Japan Axis Powers
German forces threatening to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal were defeated by the British. This defeat prevented Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil supplies and potentially attacking the Soviet Union from the south El Alamein
Hundreds of thousands of German soldiers were killed or captured in a months-long siege of this city in the Soviet Union Stalingrad
American and Allied troops under Eisenhower landed in German-occupied France on June 6, 1944, pushing out the Germans Normandy Invasion (D-day)
Turning point in the Pacific when the US defeated a much larger Japanese fleet Battle of Midway
Two islands in the Pacific where American lives lost number in the thousands Iwo Jima and Okinawa
new weapon that ended the war atomic bomb
two cities in Japan where the bomb was dropped Hiroshima and Nagasaki
attempted to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners of war by establishing rules to be followed by all nations. Geneva Convention
American POWs suffered brutal treatment by Japanese after surrender of the Philippines. Name the famous march where many American POWs died. Bataan Death March
The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group genocide
Germany’s decision to exterminate all Jews final solution
target groups of the Holocaust Jews, Slavs, Poles, Gypsies, and "Undesireables" (homosexuals, mentally ill, political dissidents)
These trials put Nazi leaders and others were convicted of war crimes Nuremberg Trials
figure used to represent women replacing men in factories during World War II Rosie the Riveter
when Japanese-Americans were forces from their home and put in camps due to the massive anti-Japanese beliefs in the US after Pearl Harbor Japanese internment
country that was partitioned into two after World War II Germany
provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and prevent the spread of communism. Marshall Plan
formed near the end of World War II to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars. United Nations
This war lasted from the end of World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 Cold War
two countries that were enemies during the Cold War US and Soviet Union
Presidential policy to contain communist, or stop the spread of communism Truman Doctrine
formed as a defensive alliance among the United States and western European countries to prevent a Soviet invasion of Western Europe NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
formed as a reaction to NATO among the Soviet Union and its satellite coutries of Eastern Europe Warsaw Pact
Eisenhower policy to avoid nucelar war; promised to use nuclear weapons if attacked massive retaliation
the US entered in this war to stop the spread of communism; it was a stalemate and the country was divided into North (communism) and South (democratic) Korean War
The US got in this war to stop the spread of communism, but failed and the entire country became communist Vietnam
Nixon plan of withdrawing American troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese forces while maintaining military aid to the South Vietnamese Vietnamization
When the Soviet Union stationed missiles in Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis
the making of false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association. McCarthyism
Soviet leader Gorbachev's policy of openess and economic restructuring “glasnost” and “perestroika”
· Supreme Court decision that segregated schools are unequal and must desegregate Brown v. Board of Education
non-violent protest led by Martin Luther King where he gave his "I have a dream" speech March on Washington
· This act prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and gender. Civil Rights act of 1964
This act resulted in an increase in African American voters. Voting Rights act of 1965
This organization challenged segregation in the courts NAACP
term used to describe low prestige, low paying jobs pink collar
term used for women who can only go so far in the workplace due to gender discrimination glass ceiling
Created by: mist73lee