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US Hot Topics

QuestionAnswer
Open Range Vast area of grassland owned by the federal government
Homestead Act Land given to farmers by the federal government. Must farm for 5 years.
Transcontinental Railroad Railroad that connected the East Coast with the West Coast. Facilitated movement of settlers west.
Exodusters African-American farmers that moved to the Great Plains
Pacific Railway Act Signed by Lincoln. Gave railroad companies the ability to begin construction of railroads.
13th Amendment Abolished slavery.
Dawes Act Act brought up by the federal government to attempt to assimilate the Native Americans. Break up reservations into smaller plots and teach Native Americans how to farm.
14th Amendment Gave citizenship rights to African Americans
Laissez-Faire Style of government. "Hands-off". Government has little control of businesses.
16th Amendment Created the Federal Income Tax by President Wilson
Robber Barons Men who became rich through less-than-ethical means.
Monopoly Total control of a type of industry by one person or one company
Social Darwinism Human society progress and became better because only the fittest people survived. "Survival of the fittest PERSON or BUSINESS.
Bessemer Process Process of making iron into steel. Revolutionized American business and construction.
15th Amendment Gave all males in the US voting rights.
Labor Union Group of workers that banded together to fight for more money, less hours, and better working conditions.
Ellis Island Island where European immigrants were processed and admitted into the US.
Angel Island Island where Asian immigrants were processed and admitted into the US. More difficult than Ellis Island.
Chinese Exclusion Act Barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in the US from becoming citizens.
Arbitration To come together and compromise on issues that are being disputed.
Tenements Horrible living conditions in large cities. Places where large families lived in single-room apartments and unsanitary conditions.
Inflation An increase in prices or decline in purchasing power caused by an increase in the supply of money.
Pendleton Act Civil Service Reform Act. To get a government job, you must now pass a test. Attempted to get rid of patronage.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act Declared any combination of trusts (monopolies) illegal.
Interstate Commerce Act Regulated the railroads
Populist Party Political party made of mostly farmers. Wanted direct election of senators, silver as a backing of money, and regulation of the railroads
Jim Crow Laws Laws of segregation
Plessy vs Ferguson (1896) Ruled separate but equal facilities constitutional
Booker T Washington African-American civil rights activist. Created Tuskegee Institute. Wanted African-Americans to receive equality through education.
Yellow Journalism Type of journalism that exaggerated the stories.
Tariff Tax on imports.
Spanish-American War War between Spain and US. War that is associated with US imperialism.
Panama Canal Built during Teddy Roosevelt's administration. Created to cut military travel time from the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean.
Roosevelt Corollary Extension of the Monroe Doctrine. Attempted to keep Europe out of Latin America. Nickname- Big Stick Diplomacy
Dollar Diplomacy Created under the Taft Administration. Using the nation's economic power to exert influence over other countries.
Muckrakers A journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society.
Socialism Belief that business should be publicly owned and run by the government.
Eighteenth Amendment Prohibited the production, sale, or transportation of alcohol in the US.
Nineteenth Amendment Women's right to vote
Pure Food and Drug Act Prohibited the manufacture, slae, or shipment of impure or falsely labeled food and drug.
Progressivism Popular movement during the late 1800s involving the middle class. Wanted advancements in social welfare, democracy, economic reform, and efficiency
Conservationist Individual who wanted to protect environment
Federal Reserve System Banks would have to keep a portion of their deposits in a regional reserve, which would provide a financial cushion against unanticipated losses.
NAACP National Association of the Advancement of Colored People. Worked for African American civil rights. Founded by WEB Dubois.
Sussex Pledge Pledge between Germany and the US in WWI. Germany promised to refrain from blowing up American ships in the Atlantic without first warning the vessel.
17th Amendment Direct Election of Senators
League of Nations Wilson's 14th Point. "General association of nations" that would help preserve peace and prevent future wars.
Palmer Raids A Mitchell Palmer's way of rounding up immigrants thought to have communist ties and deporting them.
National Origins Act Made immigrant restriction a permanent policy and tightened how many immigrants could come into the US.
Scopes Trial AKA "Monkey Trail". John Scopes of TN taken to court for teaching evolution.
Harlem Renaissance Period of explosion of Africa-American arts, literature and music.
20th Amendment Ended "lame duck" session of Congress. Shortened the length of time between the ending of one term and the beginning of another term.
21st Amendment Repealed prohibition.
Hoovervilles Shanty towns built in open fields during the Great Depression. Built from anything that could be used. Named in sarcastic honor of Hoover.
Bonus Army Veterans of WWI who marched on Washington demanding the advancement of a veteran's bonus. Displaced by Hoover and Douglas MacArthur.
Scheck vs US Supreme Court case in 1919. Stated that under wartime conditions, the words in pamphlets were not protected by the right of free speech.
FDIC Federal Depository Insurance Commission. Provided government insurance for bank deposits up to a certain amount. Increased public confidence in banks.
Wagner Act AKA- National Labor Relations Act. Guaranteed workers the right to organize unions without interference from employers and to bargain collectively.
Huey Long Promoted the "Share Our Wealth" program in response to FDR's Second New Deal.
WPA Works Progress Administration. Created in FDR's Second New Deal. Built public roads, buildings, and parks.
United Nations An international peacekeeping organization founded to promote world peace, security, and economic development.
Lend-Lease Act The US would be able to lend or lease arms to any country considered "vital to the defense of the US".
Yalta Conference US, Great Britain, and Russia's meeting to discuss the postwar world.
Manhattan Project US secret meeting to create the atomic bomb.
"Rosie the Riveter" Representation of woman used to encourage women to enter the workforce and show women's strength.
Korematsu vs US Supreme court decision that ruled that the relocation of Japanese-Americans was constitutional because it was based not on race, but on military urgency.
"Iron Curtain" The political and military barrier that isolated Soviet-controlled countries of Eastern Europe after WWII.
United Nations An international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945.
Containment Policy of US during the Cold War. Attempted to contain communism in countries and keep communism out of other countries.
HUAC House Un-American Activities Committee. Formed to investigate communist activities in the US.
McCarthyism Tactic of damaging reputations with vague and unfounded charges.
Brinkmanship Policy of promising to go to the very edge of war.
Sputnik 1st unmanned satellite to go to outer space. USSR-made.
GI Bill Provided generous loans to veterans to help them establish businesses, buy homes, and attend colleges.
Beat Generation Mostly white artists, poets, and writers that wanted to live an unconventional life outside the style of the 1950s.
Brown vs Board of Education Ruled separate but equal policy unconstitutional.
Cuban Missile Crisis Standoff between US and Cuba. US threatened Cuba and USSR with war because Cuba had nuclear missiles pointed at US.
Cold War A state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the US and the Soviet Union after WWII.
23rd Amendment Gives the District of Columbia voting rights.
Great Society President Johnson's political ideology.
Affirmative Action A policy that seeks to correct the effect of past discrimination by favoring the groups that were previously disadvantaged.
SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Played a key role in desegregating public facilities between 1960-1965.
Freedom Summer Summer of 1964. Black and white Northerners came to the South to register African-American voters.
Malcolm X Early symbol of Black Power. Early life- part of the Nation of Islam and preached black and white integration was impossible. Later life- Believed integration was possible. Assassinated by Nation of Islam.
Black Power Belief that African-Americans should end racial oppression and control of major institutions and services in the African-American community.
Roe vs Wade Supreme Court ruling that said state governments could not regulate abortion during the first three months of pregnancy but could ban abortions in the final three months.
Ceasar Chavez Helped establish the National Farm Workers Association. Non violent association that worked to improve worker's condition.
AIM American Indian Movement. Wanted restoration of lands and recognition of Native American government.
EPA Environmental Protection Agency. Set and enforced pollution standards.
Ho Chi Minh Communist leader of North Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem Leader of the Republican South Vietnam
Tonkin Gulf Resolution US ship was fired upon in the Tonkin Gulf. Led President Johnson to send first combat troops to defend South Vietnam.
Tet Offensive Led by Vietcong in South Vietnam. First major victory by communists. Showed US that the war was going to last longer than anticipated.
26th Amendment 18 year olds given the right to vote
Pentagon Papers Leak showing Johnson was prepared to go to and stay in Vietnam longer than he had originally said.
Vietnamization The process of making South Vietnam assume more of the war effort by slowly withdrawing American troops from Vietnam.
War Powers Act Limited the power of the president to send troops into a war.
Watergate Nixon's downfall. Connected to the burglary and cover up of the break-in at the DNC.
24th Amendment Ended the poll tax.
25th Amendment Presidential Line of Succession.
Star Wars A proposed defense system during intended to protect the US against missile attacks
Desert Storm Attack launched by President George Bush to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi control (1991)
Patriot Act US law that allows the government the power to conduct search and surveillance of suspected terrorists.
27th Amendment Congressional pay raises will take effect after the representatives have been re-elected.
Love Canal Houses built on hazardous waste materials.
North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement A 1993 treaty that lowered tariffs and brought Mexico into the free-trade zone established by the US and Canada.
Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) A program administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides matching funds to states for health insurance to families with children.
Created by: aedwards05