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Revolution Review

Study Guide For Mr. Spires American Revolution

Who was John Locke? The English philosopher who Thomas Jefferson took ideas about natural rights from when writing the Declaration of Independence.
Explain the quartering act Required colonist to house, feed and supply British soldiers with needed items for no pay.
What was the cause of the French and Indian War? Land claimed by both Britain and France in the Ohio River valley.
What was a major problem that faced Britain following the French and Indian War? Debt from fighting the war and taxes that were already so high in Britain that they could not be raised higher.
What young soldier made a name for himself in the French and Indian War? George Washington
Define Patriot British citizen living in colonial America and wanted to break free from Britain and was willing to fight a war to do it.
Explain details about the Stamp Act Stamp (tax) on all official documents,newspaper and playing cards - Caused the creation of the Stamp Act Congress, Sons of Liberty were created because of it. Colonists boycotted it and it was repealed. Began "No Taxation w/o Representation."
Explain "No Taxation without Representation" Colonists used this rally cry during the Stamp Act and beyond. They were saying it was unfair for Parliament to tax them unless King George III gave them a representative in Parliament.
A refusal to buy is called Boycott
Who/What were the Sons of Liberty? A secret group led by Samuel Adams and John Hancock that created multiple ways to block British rule and unfair acts by Britain in the Colonies.
What did the Proclamation of 1763 do? Forbid the colonists from moving West of the Appalachian Mountains.
Why was the Proclamation of 1763 put into effect? The King said he was protecting the colonist from Native Americans and reserved the territory for Native Americans
What occurred that caused King George III to think the colonists needed protection from Native Americans? Pontiac's Rebellion.
What was the real reason for the Proclamation of 1763? To keep the colonists close together so the King could collected the taxes he needed to pay off the war and debts of the colonies.
What is a loyalist? British citizen living in the colonies who sided with the King and Britain and did not want independence.
What were the Patriots strengths at the beginning of the war? Patriotism - . Fighting tactics taught by Native Americans. Aid from France - During the first two years of the war, France secretly supplied the rebels with 90% of their gunpowder. George Washington - Inspired courage and confidence.
What were the British strengths at the beginning of the war? 50,000 troops (well-trained) 30,000 Hessian Mercenaries hired to fight. Loyalists Food, uniforms, weapons and ammo. Navy was strongest in the world.
What were the Patriots weaknesses at the beginning of the war? Men - Continental Army never had more than 20,000 troops. Many soldiers only enlisted for six months or a year. Men were not trained for battle. Guns and powder were in short supply. Food shortages - Uniforms. Lack of money.
What were the weaknesses of the British during the war? Distance between Britain and America. King George was never able to convince the British people that defeating the rebels was vital to their future. Poor leadership in England - Britain was fighting in other areas. Overconfidence.
Explain the Sugar Act Lowered the tax on British sugar and molasses and placed a tax on imported Sugar and Molasses as an attempt to stop the smuggling by the colonists, but it did not work.
Which Acts were a hidden tax placed on items when the reached the dock? Townshend Acts.
What items were taxed by the Townshend Acts? Paper, lead, paint, glass and tea.
How are the Townshend Acts and Daughters of Liberty connected? The Daughters of Liberty were formed to hand make many of the items that were being taxed so that colonists could boycott buying them from Britain.
What are Writs of Assistance Blank search warrants used by Britain to search for smuggled goods.
How are Writs of Assistance connected to the U.S. Bill of Rights? The 4th Amendment to the Bill of Rights prohibits illegal search and seizure of property.
What part did the Hessians play in the American Revolution They were hired mercenaries that were paid to fight for Britain. There were 30,000 in the colonies.
What pamphlet was written by Thomas Paine to convince colonists to declare independence? Common Sense
What occurred at the Boston Massacre? Began as a snow ball fight between some colonial kids and soldiers guarding the Customs House. During the Argument, one soldier thought he heard someone yell "fire" and he and other soldiers fired into the crowd, killing 5 people/ Crispus Attucks
How was the Boston Massacre used by the Sons of Liberty? Paul Revere had an engraving that was used as propaganda to make it appear that colonists were massacred by the British Soldiers.
What were the Committees of Correspondence? Groups of people in each colony that were designated to write committees in other colonies to keep them informed about what Britain was doing in their colony and to warn others if trouble was occurring.
What is the American Crisis 2nd Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to convince Continental soldiers to stay in the Army and fight against Britain.
What was the "Crisis" that Paine wrote about in the American Crisis Most of the Continental army only enlisted to serve for 6 months or 1 year and many of them had served this time and if they left, Washington would not have an army to fight the British with.
What was Paine's point in the Crisis when asked if the men were "Summer Soldiers and Sunshine patriots" He wanted to know if know if the continental soldiers thought the fight was only worth it when they were warm and it was summer or were they patriots when they were cold, hungry and had very little protection from the winter cold.
Explain the Tea Act It said the colonists could only buy tea from the British East India Tea Company. Many members of parliament owned stock in this company and were loosing money because the tea was no good.
What was the colonial response to the Tea Act? Boston Tea Party
Describe the Boston Tea Party Members of the Sons of Liberty dressed as Mohawk Indians and boarded three British ships and dumped 342 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor. Made "Mama" Britain mad because of the cost to members of parliament.
Who is the main author of the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
Why was Jefferson chosen to be the main author of the Declaration of Independence? He was a very good writer and he was from Virginia (The founding fathers knew they needed the backing of Virginia for the Revolution to work)
Who signed the Declaration of Independence in large letters? John Hancock
Why did John Hancock sign the Declaration of Independence in large letters? So King George III could read it without his spectacles (glasses) on.
Why is Richard Henry Lee important to our history? He was the first to publicly call for independence.
Who is quoted? "Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown... Richard Henry Lee
Paul Revere's drawing of the Boston Massacre would be considered to be drawn from which perspective? Patriots Perspective
What did Parliament pass as a reaction to the Boston Tea Party The Coercive Acts (Called Intolerable Acts by the colonists)
Why were the British coming to Lexington and Concord? Capture the guns and ammo stored there and to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock
Who is created for the famous midnight ride? Paul Revere
What did Paul Revere yell as he rode toward Lexington and Concord? The Regulars are coming or The Redcoats are coming - Yelling the British are coming would not be correct because they were all British.
Describe the Coercive / Intolerable Acts Closed the port of Boston until the tea was paid for. Began quartering troops in Massachusetts again Blocked Boston off from the rest of the colonies Reduced self-government in the colonies
What occurred December 25, 1776? On Dec. 25, 1776, Washington led 2, 400 soldiers across the icy Delaware river. Under the cover of darkness, all men crossed unseen. The next morning they attacked the sleeping Hessians and defeated them.
Why is the Battle of Saratoga considered the turning point of the American Revolution? Because after the battle France signed the Treaty of Alliance and openly helped fight Britain.
What happened at the Battle of Bunker hill? Britain won but Moral victory for the patriots.
Where was the Battle of Bunker hill fought? On neighboring Breeds Hill.
Who is considered "Father" of the U.S. Navy John Paul Jones
What is John Paul Jones famous quote? "I've not yet begun to fight!"
What was the last major attempt at peace that the Continental Congress submitted to King George III? Olive Branch Petition
What was the horrible winter camp where Washington's troops stayed? Valley Forge
Describe conditions at Valley Forge Little protection from the freezing. Dirt-floor hut measured 14 ft. by 16 ft. and slept about 12 soldiers. Slept on either muddy floors or straw mattresses crawling with lice. About 2,500 died.
What is Benedict Arnold best known as A traitor - He tried to turn plans over to the British on how to capture West Point Fort.
What is a privateer Private ship armed for battle used by colonists because they did not have many battleships
Who is Francis Marion better known as? "The Swamp Fox"
Why was Francis Marion given the nickname he had? He was called Swamp Fox because he: Led troops in quick strikes, Usually struck at night. Never stayed at the same camp more than once. His scouts perched in treetops Covered bridges with blankets to soften the sound of the horses’ hooves.
Who was the main General for the British Army? General Cornwallis
Who is Mary Ludwig Hayes McCauley better know as and why? Spent seven years by her husband’s side in battle. Soldiers called her “Molly Pitcher” because she carried water pitchers to the men during battles.
What did Molly Pitcher do when her husband was wounded in battle? She took his place at the cannon firing at the British.
What is the unique story of Deborah Sampson? She dressed in men’s clothing and borrowed her brother Robert’s name and joined the Continental Army. She was wounded a few times and treated her wounds herself so she wouldn’t be detected.
How did the War end? Washington and the French capture Cornwallis and his troops at Yorktown on the Chesapeake Peninsula . There were 29 French warships anchored there to keep him from escaping by sea.
Where was the last major battle of the American Revolution? Yorktown Virginia
What did the British Band play as the troops surrendered to the Continental Army at Yorktown? "The World Turned Upside Down"
What did the United States get from the Treaty of Paris of 1783? Great Britain acknowledged the independence of colonist and remove all troops from American soil. Set new boundaries for the US - Included land West of the App. Mountains to the Miss. River. Great Britain returned Florida to Spain.Americans had to pay
What was Nathan Hale's famous quote after being caught spying for Washington? “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
What was Patrick Henry's famous quote given before the Virginia House of Burgesses? "Give me liberty, or give me death!"
What event was the one that "made mama mad?" Boston Tea Party
Which Acts were the harshest punishment to Boston "almost caging Boston" away from the rest of the colonies? Coercive/Intolerable Acts
What group would most likely try to help Boston when they were "cut off" from the rest of the colonies because of the Intolerable Acts? Sons of Liberty
What is Salutary Neglect? The period when Britain loosened their control of the colonists because they needed their help during the French and Indian War. This period of freedom the colonists had made it almost impossible for Britain to regain control after the F&I War ended.
Created by: aspires
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