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Humn101 Names IV

names in IV exam

Innocent III Most powerful medieval pope, he "reached the pinnacle of papal power"; he forced King John of England to be his vassal and he taxed England directly.
Pepin the Short Mayor of the palace of the Frankish kingdom from the Carolingian family; he eventually asked the Frankish nobility and Pope Zachary to support his claim to the Frankish throne, and became the first Carolingian king of the Franks.
Otto I United Germany and revived the Holy Roman Empire after the "Dark Ages."
Gregory VII This pope struggled with German emperor Henry IV over the question of lay investiture.
Louis the Pious Charlemagne's son who ruled 26 years, it was after his death that the "Salic law" of the Franks caused the kingdom to be divided equally among his sons.
Alcuin of York Anglo-Saxon educator whom Charlemagne brought to Aachen to run his palace school; he brought classical and Christian learning to the palace school to upgrade its curriculum.
Charles Martel Mayor of the Palace of the Frankish king, he led Frankish troops in defeating Islamic armies at Poitiers (near Tours) in 732, pushing the Islamic armies back to the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Odo Abbot of Cluny known for the system of musical notation that he helped to develop
Gregory I Important pope who negotiated a peace treaty with the Lombards, thus asserting the secular power of the pope; called himself "servant of the servants of God" promoted priestly celibacy and sent missionaries to England; he would reform the western calendar
Clovis First King of the Franks and founder of Merovingian Dynasty; he converted himself (and his kingdom) to Christianity around 496.
Leo III Pope who crowned Charlemagne as the first Holy Roman Emperor.
Bernard of Clairvaux He founded the Cistercian monastic order to promote a rigid following of Bendict's Rule; he also led the preaching for the Second Crusade.
Saladin Muslim ruler of Syria and Egypt, he led the forces that retook Jerusalem from Crusaders in 1187, prompting calls for a Second Crusade to "liberate" Jerusalem.
Nicholas II Papal reformer of 11th century, allied himself w/ Normans in Italty 2 free papacy from military dependence on German emperors. The 1st pope 2 oppose lay investiture, & redefined selection process 4 popes, only college of cardinals would meet & select pope
Moses Maimonides Medieval Jewish philosopher and author of Guide of the Perplexed; he used Aristotle's philosophy to create a synthesis between science and faith.
John II His conflict with Pope Innocent II, including his appointment of a new Archbishop of Canterbury, led to the subjugation of England to the Pope -- and led to the anger of the English nobility.
Gislebertus Artist who created the Last Judgment tympanum at Vezelay.
Dhuoda Her book of advice for her sons was known as the Manual (Enchiridion).
Leif Erikson Norwegian who led an expedition to North America in the late tenth century.
Moses de Leon Medieval Jewish mystic and author of the Zohar, a mystical commentary on the Torah.
Dhuoda Her book of advice for her sons was known as the Manual (Enchiridion).
Anselm Prior at Bec and later Archbishop of Canterbury, his Why God Became a Human Being was an attempt to explain the atonement.
Eleanor of Aquitaine She was the wife of Louis VII of France; then she was the wife of Henry II of England; then she formed an alliance against Henry with Louis VII. Her sons included John II and Richard the Lion Hearted.
Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury whose head was split open by the swords of knights of the English King Henry II. The archbishop had tried to preserve the church's autonomy from the legal authority of Henry
Frederick I (Barbarossa) Hohenstaufen ruler of the Holy Roman Empire who died on the third crusade; his armies had been defeated by Italian armies twice, ending his efforts to control Lombardy.
Harold Sigurdson Viking soldier who became rich serving in the court of the emperor in Constantinople; he returned to Norway and became king. He died trying to conquer all of England -- he was defeated by Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.
Louis IX This French king was viewed as the embodiment of the medieval idea of the perfect ruler. He tried to make France more equitable, abolishing serfdom and private wars (and he also sponsored the French inquisition and led crusades against Muslims).
Created by: midnight1854
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