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Nutrition-H20 SolVit

QuestionAnswer
Name the water soluble vitamins Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, Vitamin C
Name the sources of thiamin Pork, nuts, legumes, unrefined cereal germs, and whole wheat
Temperature and pH changes can destroy the activity of thiamin (T/F) True
Describe the thiamin transporter and it's process -Thiamin is transported through a high-affinity thiamin transporter (SLC19A2 gene) -The High-affinity thiamin transporter is similar to the reduced Folate transporter
What is Thiamin-Reponsie megaloblastic anemia? Thiamin-Responsive megaloblastic anemia is a rare disease associated with a deficiency in the SLC19A2 gene
Describe the interconversions of thiamin TMP -> Thiamin -> TDP -> TTP 1 2 3 1-Phosphatase 2-Pyrophospholkinase 3-Adenylate Kinase
Name the Thiamin deficiency diseases -Known as Beriberi -Poor diets, chronic alcoholism, megaloblastic anemia (transporter), Lactic acidosis, Branched-chain ketoaciduria (branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase), necrotizing encephalomyelopathy (lack of TPP in neural tissues)
What is lactic acidosis? Decreased pyruvate decarboxylase activity
Name the thiamin deficiency symptoms Mental confusion, anorexia, muscular weakness, ataxia, peripheral paralysis, paralysis of motor nerves of the eye, edema (wet beriberi), muscle wasting (dry beriberi), tachycardia, and enlarged heart
Name the biochemical assessment of thiamin deficiency Erythrocyte transketolase test, measurement of blood and/or urinary levels of thiamin, and measurement of blood levels of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate
Describe the erythrocyte transketolase test? RBC's lack mitochondria and use the PPP to regenerate NADPH. Transketolase is a thiamin sensitive enzyme in the PPP.
Riboflavin (B2) is required for the synthesis of what two coenzymes? FAD & FMN
What are the functions of riboflavin (B2) -catabolism of glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies, and amino acids -oxidative/reduction reactions within the electron transport system
What are the significant sources of Riboflavin? Milk, dairy products, meats, liver, green vegetables, and enriched flours/cereals
Which organ absorbs riboflavin from the diet? Small intestines
Describe the absorption of riboflavin -Absorbed by the small intestines -Transport occurs through a Na+ dependent transporter and passive diffusion -Cell uptake involves two types of transporters (facilitated and simple diffusion) -Riboflavin is typically not stored and is excreted in urin
Describe the mechanism that forms FMN and FAD Riboflavin -> FMN -> FAD 1 2 1-Favokinase 2-FAD Synthetase
Name the deficiencies of riboflavin -Ariboflavinosis -Stunted growth, skin lesions, segorrhic dermatitis, soreness and burning of lips mouth, & tongue;photophobia, buring/itching of eyes, superficial vascularization of cornea, cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis, anemia, neuropathy
Describe the pathophysiology of ariboflavinosis -Flavokinase activity is decreased -FAD synthetase activity is increased
Describe the biochemical assessment of riboflavin deficiency -Measuring glutathioine reductase activity from erythrocytes -Measurements of urinary riboflavin excretion for 24 hrs -Measuring riboflavin concentrations in RBC's
Niacin is used to synthesize what cofactor NAD
What are the functions of Niacin -The ox/red Rx of glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies, and amino acids -Electron transport
Name the niacin (B3) food sources Meats, poultry, fish, legumes, cereals, and peanuts
Describe the absorption and transport process of Niacin (B3) -Nicotinic acid is absorbed from the small intestines through a Na+ dependent transporter and through passive diffusion -Some absorption of nicotinic acid can occur in the stomach -Niacin is transported or diffuses into cells prior to modification
What happens to most of the niacin near the end of the transport/absorption process Most niacin is reabsorbed from the kidneys and very little is excreted in the urine
Name the deficiencies of niacin (B3) -Pellagra -common in cultures where corn or sorghum are consumed -corn is low in tryptophan, niacin and the niacin found in corn is found in an unavailable form
What are the causes of Pellagra (deficiencies of niacin) Drugs (isoniazid depletes the enzyme needed to convert tryptophan to niacin), Malignant carcinoid (Tryptophan is primarily converted to serotonin), alcoholism, Hartnup's disease (effects intestinal transport and renal absorption of tryptophan)
How does the deficiency affect the GI tract -Decrease in HCl production -Decrease in Vitamin B12 absorption -Fat -Glucose
How does the deficiency affect the CNS Weakness, Lassitude, Anorexia, indigestion, dermatitis (mainly in areas exposed to sunlight), Diarrhea, Dementia
What are the Biochemical Assessment of Niacin Deficiency Measurement of urinary metabolites
Describe the niacin toxicities Niacin flush: Capillary dilation, pain sensation, and redness of the skin
Where is biotin commonly found? Biotin is commonly found in the dietary proteins. The biotin is covalently bound to proteins in our diet
Describe the absorption/transport of Biotin -Biotinidase is a hydrolase that cleaves biotin from proteins/peptides -Biotin is subsequently transported via Na+ dependent multivitamin transporter -A Na+ dependent transporter transports biotin into cells -Biotin is reabsorbed in the kidneys
Describe the function of biotin -Holocarboxylase Synthetase is the enzyme responsible for the addition of Biotin to proteins -Prosthetic group in 4 carboxylase: acetyl CoA carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, propionyl CoA carboxylase
Name the food sources for Biotin -Liver, Baker's yeast, wheat bran, egg yolks
Name the biotin deficiency symptoms Holocarboxylase synthase, biotinidase deficiency, and nutritional deficiencies
Holocarboxylase synthase -occurs shortly after birth -ketoacidosis, seizures, lethargy, comma, and death
Biotinidase deficiency Seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, hearing loss, optic atrophy, skin rash, and hair loss
nutritional deficiencies Dermatitis, alopecia, hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay
What is the function of Pantothenic Acid? Required for: Fatty acid synthesis, ketone bodies, oxidation of pyruvate, and amino acid metabolism
Describe the transport/absorption process of Pantothenic Acid -Absorption is mediated through the action of a Na+ dependent multivitamin transporter
Created by: jgrayson