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Nutrition - Vitamins

QuestionAnswer
What are the significant sources of Vitamin A? Liver, green leafy vegetables, yellow-orange vegetables, fruit & fortified foods
In what organ/cell does Vitamin A gets absorbed in first? As what substance? Intestinal Lumen; Retinyl esters
What substance from Vitamin A is released from the intestinal epithelial cells into the blood? Retinyl esters in chylomicrons
What substance from Vitamin A is released from the liver parachymal cells into the blood? RBP-retinol
What substance from Vitamin A does the liver parachymal cells release into the liver stellate cells? What does the substance eventually become? Retinol; Retinyl esters
What are the basic functions of Vitamin A Vision, reproduction, immune function, cell proliferation, cell signaling,
What form of Vitamin A is used for vision? 11-cis-retinal
What form of Vitamin A is used for immune function? Retinol; mediates lymphocyte survival and proliferation
What are the symptoms for Vitamin A deficiency? Ocular problems and/or depressed immune function
What are the diseases caused by Vitamin A deficiency? Night Blindness, blindness, xerophthalmia, Keratomalacia (dry eyes,irreversible), keratinization of tracheal epithelium
What are two signs of xerophthalmia? Structural damage to the cornea and Bitot's spot
What are the clinical signs and symptoms for Vitamin A toxicity? Teratogenic effects, liver disease, dryness, erythema (redness of skin), scaling/peeling of skin, hair loss, nail problems, headache, nausea, vomitting, overgrowth of periosteal bone, and increase in bone fractures
What are the significant sources of Vitamin D? -Fatty fish, fish oils, fortified foods like milk, cereal, and breads -Rare in food
Vitamin D is uptaken by what organ of the body? Liver
Liver converts Vitamin D to what structure? Where does this structure travel to? 25(OH)D; Prostate gland, breast, colon, lung, immune cells, and kidney
The kidney convert 25(OH)D to what form of Vitamin D? What is this form of Vitamin D involved with? -1,25(OH)2D -Involved in calcium homeostasis, muscle and bone health, BP regulation, insulin production, prevention of heart disease and type 2 diabetes)
The prostate gland, breast, colon, lung, immune cells produce what form of Vitamin D? What does this form of Vitamin D do for the body? Regulation of immune function (prevention of type I diabetes and autoimmune disease) and regulation of cell growth (cancer prevention)
Deficiency of Vitamin D would lead to what disease in children? Describe the disease. Rickets; Disorganization & hypertrophy of chondrocytes at mineralization front
Deficiency of Vitamin D would lead to what disease in adults? Describe the disease. Osteomalacia (poor mineralization collagen matrix;osteiod), osteopenia (decrease in opacity as seen in radiographs), deep bone pain(due to hydration of unmineralized matrix in periosteum), hypocalcemia (low calcium levels), hypophosphatemia (low P lvls)
Toxicity of Vitamin D Hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, calcification of soft tissues, constipation, polyuria, polydispia, kidney stones, headache, weakness
Describe the absorption of Vitamin E (part 1) -absorption and transport is similar to that of cholesterol absorption/transport -Absorption is initiated in the intestines where they are absorbed by the enteroscytes -Vitamin E and corresponding triglycerides are then incorporated into chylormicrons
Describe the absorption of Vitamin E (part 2) -The movement of Vitamin E throughout the lymphatic system is identical to that of cholesterol and fats. Once absorbed in the liver is incorporated into VLDLs or used to make water-soluble metabolites of vitamin E.
Describe the absorption of Vitamin E (part 3) Vitamin E from other cells is packaged into HDLs and transported throughout the body
Describe Vitamin E's function as a free radical scavenger -protect membrane lipids and proteins from free radical damage -The tocopherols donate an e- to the free radical thus removing the free radical and protecting lipids & proteins from being oxidized
Other Vitamin E non-free radical activities -modulate protein kinase C activity -alter cell proliferation -induce arachidonic acid synthesis
Significant sources of Vitamin E Oil seeds, salad dressings, mayonnaise, margarines, oils (sunflower/safflower), nuts, and various spreads are the highest sources of Vitamin E in our diet
What has animal studies shown us about Vitamin E deficiency? -Cardiac Myopathy in rabits &guinea pigs -Species specificity (unknown)
Describe Vitamin E Deficiency's clinical signs, symptoms, and diseases -Decreased life span of RBC's -Deficiencies are rare, but often present in patients with lipoprotein deficiencies, lipid malabsorption syndromes, and fat malabsorption conditions -Vitamin E is inadequately transferred across the placenta
What do epidemiology studies say about Vitamin D Deficiency? -Increase immune response -Decrease risk of cardiovascular disease
Toxicity of Vitamin E -Supplements -Increase blood coagulation time and possible risk of hemmorrhage
Significant Sources of Vitamin K from diet Green vegetables, kale, collards, spinach, parsley, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, and lettuce -animal products are typically a PPOR source for Vitamin K
Describe Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) absorption -Similar to fat absorption -transported in chylomicrons to the liver as a chylomicron remnant -found circulating in HDLs, LDLs, & VLDLs -phylloquinone is excreted primarily in the feces, but may be excreted in the urine
Describe Vitamin K deficiency in newborns -Secondary deficiency -normal "flora" bacteria (prod Vit K) is absent in newborns -Vit K is typically low in breast milk -Hypothrombinemia in newborns -commercial infant formula is formulated w/ Vit K -Mothers can increase vit K lvls in breast milk w
Describe Vitamin K deficiency -In newborns -Antibiotic consumption can induce vitamin K deficiency -Patients undergoing long term total parenteral nutrition -Malabsorption problems
Biochemical assessment of Vitamin K -Plasma/serum phylloquinone concentrations not typically used -Prothrombin time-an indirect test used to assess Vitamin K levels
Created by: jgrayson